Viewpoint. Creating Anti-Racist Early Childhood Spaces (2023)

Rosemarie Allen Dorothy L. Shapland Jen Neitzel Iheoma U. Iruka

Editors' Note

This article includes a number of online-only features, which are linked below:

  • Noticing Racism in Your Program
  • Noticing Racism in Your Classroom
  • Taking Steps Toward Anti-Racism

The focus on racial equity following the murder of George Floyd has resulted in conversations about racism that were unheard of less than a year ago. A critical examination of race, bias, racial inequity, and racism is taking place at every level in our society, and researchers, educators, and advocates have proposed anti-racism strategies for a variety of settings, including in early childhood spaces. To enact and sustain an anti-racist approach, early childhood educators need to understand the racial history of early childhood programs and the racism in current early childhood programs. In this article, we outline the past and present along with strategies for creating anti-racist early childhood spaces.

Racial History of Early Childhood Programs

The history of early childhood education is vast and varied, and the Perry Preschool Project (part 1andpart 2) stands out as a seminal program and longitudinal study in its history. Many early childhood advocates, supporters, and professionals tout the benefits of the Perry Preschool Program as an investment in the future of America, noting a 13 percent return on investment for every dollar invested in high-quality early childhood programs (Heckman 2006; Heckman & Karapakula 2019). The program also provides a key example of the racial history of early childhood programs, as it was designed to increase the IQ test scores of children from disadvantaged families (Derman-Sparks & Moore 2016).

In essence, the goal of the Perry Preschool Project was to address what were considered Black children’s inherent deficits and to create better Americans. Initiated in the 1960s in a climate rife with civil unrest and overt racism, Black children were viewed as culturally, socially, and economically “deprived” and living in a culture of poverty. The termdisadvantaged—and a viewpoint now identified as adeficit perspective—emergedaround the time of the Perry Preschool Project, and it was code for being poor and Black. More specifically, Black preschoolers were identified as a population that could be fixed, whose deficits could be corrected, and whose future lives could be improved (Jackson 2014). Black families, especially Black single mothers, were viewed as pathological, inept, and incapable of providing an optimal environment for their children (Moynihan 1969; Jensen 1984). It was believed that Black families needed to be taught how to parent their children by the White teachers in the program (Derman-Sparks 2016). The fear of unruly, uneducated, and socially deviant children led to the implementation of preschool curricula focused on improving IQ scores, learning socially “appropriate behaviors,” and responding positively to those in authority.

(Video) Creating Anti-Racist Early Childhood Spaces, Q&A Follow-up

In addition, the focus on psychopathologic outcomes such as criminalization and teen pregnancy contributed to this deficit lens of Black children and communities. Weikart (1971) described the Perry Preschool Project as an experiment to enable culturally deprived children and children testing in the range of “educable mentally retarded” to enter into a regular classroom. From the onset, the Perry Preschool Project and other programs of this time—coupled with the War on Poverty—sought to fix children from families with low income rather than address the structural racism that led to the disproportionate numbers of Black children living in poverty and being labeled as “deprived.”

While the Perry Preschool Project (and similar studies, such as the Carolina Abecedarian Study) did not significantly improve scores on measures of intelligence, children who participated in the program were more likely to graduate high school and have greater earning capacity as adults (Campbell et al. 2002; Schweinhart et al. 2005). They were also less likely to become teen parents and become involved in the justice system.

Although the Perry Preschool Project resulted in positive outcomes for children, such as increased parent engagement over time, employment stability, positive multigenerational effects, and positive adult health outcomes, its effects must be considered in light of its limitations too (Heckman & Karapakula 2019). A key limitation was that researchers failed to interview the teachers or gather a range of information from the families and children who were involved in the program and study. They did not investigate the attitudes of the teachers toward the children, nor the relationships between the home and school (Derman-Sparks 2016). As Derman-Sparks and Moore (2016) wrote:“Most Perry Preschool teachers—including the two of us—held the empowerment perspective, while administrators mostly took the cultural deprivation perspective. The teachers’ empowerment beliefs shaped actual practice with the children and families, although publications about the program reflected the administrators’ cultural deprivation thinking” (85). Such qualitative information could have informed and improved the practices not only of the Perry Preschool program, but of many early childhood education programs that came after.

Racism in Current Early Childhood Education Programs

More often than not, early childhood educators and programs think or teach about race, bias, and equity from one of two approaches: “the color-blind approach” or the “celebration of differences approach” (Doucet & Adair 2013). These stem from beliefs that if educators teach love, kindness, and fairness only, then they do not need to point out or discuss racial bias or inequities with our young learners.

These more common approaches fail to acknowledge that everyone has lived their lives in a system that is racist; that we all come with and act on biases, especially when unchecked or monitored; and that we are inundated with images and messages that influence how we think about and respond to one another. This has resulted in racist perceptions and beliefs that are embedded within the very fabric of our existence (Staats 2014). The system is designed for some to rise at the expense of others, and loving all children equally is not enough. Frankly, it is not the reality in our early childhood classrooms.

Statistics consistently show disparities in young Black children’s experiences in early learning settings and in how teachers perceive and respond to children’s behaviors based on race. For example, in one study, educators were asked to be on the lookout for challenging behaviors in a video clip. The video clip showed two Black children (one male, one female) and two White children (one male, one female). Researchers found that participants watched the Black boy more than any other child. Forty-two percent of the participants reported that he required more of their attention, despite the fact that no challenging behaviors were demonstrated in the video and that all children were involved in the same level of play (Gilliam et al. 2016).

Research also shows that teachers tend to perceive Black children as older, less innocent, more culpable, and more criminal than other children (Goff et al. 2014). Thisadultificationmay contribute to the bias teachers hold, expecting negative behavior from Black children more than others (Gilliam et al. 2016).

National data find the following regarding disproportionate rates of preschool suspension and expulsion:

  • Preschool children are expelled more than three times as often as children in all of K–12 combined (Gilliam 2005).
  • Black children are three-and-a-half times more likely to be suspended than their White counterparts, despite the fact that they make up less than 20 percent of the population (OCR 2016).
  • Black girls account for only 20 percent of the female preschool population, yet they comprise 54 percent of preschool girls who are suspended (OCR 2016).

These facts are significant indicators of the ways that early childhood classrooms contribute to societal racism and anti-Blackness, or the belief that “Black bodies become marginalized, disregarded, and disdained” (Dumas & Ross 2016, 417). Indeed, if teachers are not actively working toward an anti-racist early childhood space, then they may be teaching children to be racist by their own behaviors and words in the classroom.

Children in the preschool years are inquirers by nature. They are constantly observing, collecting information, analyzing, and trying to make sense of what they see and hear. For instance, they know who it is that teachers look at when something goes wrong, who is being held more accountable, who is granted second chances, and who is reprimanded most often in their classrooms. They notice the actions of teachers. They detect the implicit biases and unconscious prejudices, which come through in displays of favoritism and privileging of some children over others based on gender, race, and culture (Allen 2016). What children tend to observe, from early ages, is that boys get into trouble more than girls, that the darker-skinned children are more likely to be held accountable than the lighter-skinned children, and that White children are given the opportunity and time to share about themselves and their lives more often than darker-skinned children. In addition, the quality of interactions differs too: the more Black and Latino/a children there are in a classroom, the more teachers talkatthem and notwiththem (Early et al. 2010). In current early childhood spaces, children seek and gain an internalized sense of how things are in school and in the world. In many early childhood spaces, racism exists as part of the early childhood experience.

Creating Anti-Racist Early Childhood Environments

Viewpoint. Creating Anti-Racist Early Childhood Spaces (1)

In order to learn about race, children need the time, space, curriculum, and supports to talk about and make sense of what they are seeing and noticing. It requires teachers to embrace the conversation, even if they experience uncertainty or discomfort while doing so. (See “Taking Steps Toward Anti-Racism,” below.) Teachers must talk about race every day because race exists every day. Children deserve mirrors that reflect themselves and windows to peer into other people’s experiences (Wright with Counsell 2018). They deserve the opportunity to ask the questions that form in their minds about differences and similarities as they learn to categorize the world around them.

Unlike the more common approaches taken, being anti-racist is more than loving all children the same or teaching children more generally about kindness and fairness. It is more than celebrating diversity during special events and then moving on with the curriculum. Anti-racist teachers teach about racism throughout the day and the curriculum. They point it out and acknowledge it, and they invite children to discuss race, racism, and inequity when they see it. When teachers invite the conversation about how everyone is learning about race and that racism is all around us, we give children the space to name it and to become anti-racists themselves.

Committing to Become Anti-Racist

The journey toward becoming anti-racist is not a check-the-box activity. (See “Journeying Together: How My Program Addresses Race and Anti-Bias”.) Many organizations include diversity, inclusion, and equity in their mission statements.Diversityis the effort to increase the number of people of color, andinclusion(in this context) is the effort to incorporate the input of people of color.Equityis the relentless focus on eliminating racial inequities and increasing success for all groups (Nelson & Brooks 2015). To evaluate whether an organization’s reality is aligned with its written statements, an equity audit should be conducted on a regular basis. It can reveal if equity is indeed valued in early childhood classrooms, administrations, and organizations.

(Video) UCLA Connections - Where do we go from here? Creating an anti-racist climate of support

Fundamentally, to create anti-racist early childhood spaces, early childhood educators must embrace the concepts of anti-racism. They must take direct and intentional action against racist behaviors, practices, policies, and beliefs to dismantle and interrupt racism. (See “Noticing Racism in Your Program” and “Noticing Racism in Your Classroom,” below.) Anti-racism posits there is no middle ground. There is no such thing as “not a racist.” One is either anti-racist and fighting against racism, or they are racist by default. Racism is not defined by who you are but by your actions. It is what one does or fails to do that makes a person racist (Kendi 2019).

In early childhood classrooms are future doctors, police officers, government officials, and teachers who will live in a racial society. Creating an anti-racist early childhood program is essential for their survival and will ensure that today’s young children are not tomorrow’s protestors, demanding justice and chanting “Black Lives Matter.”

Now is the time to make this commitment. True equity work cannot begin until we are grounded in a common understanding about the unique realities and brutalities in our history and present, particularly the structures that have been put in place over time to benefit White people and to simultaneously oppress others. We must all be involved in the cause; however, educators need to take these steps toward anti-racism before that can happen.

Noticing Racism in Your Program

Some of the ways in which racism is evident in early childhood organizations include when

  • most of those in leadership positions are White, and people of color are not invited to serve on committees, boards, or to take on higher level duties (Austin et al. 2019)
  • most of the teaching staff are Black or Brown and are rarely promoted within the organization(Austin et al. 2019)
  • employees of color experience closer, more intense examination of their work and behavior; are more frequently reprimanded, especially Black staff members; may have their hairstyles banned in dress codes; and may be discouraged from speaking their home language at work (Griffin 2019)
  • mispronouncing, making fun of, or shortening names that are not traditionally “White” names are accepted practices (Marrun 2018)
  • Black men are expected to be the disciplinarians, and White teachers send Black children to Black teachers for discipline because “they know how to handle them” (Brockenbrough 2015)
  • people of color are excluded from outside-of-workactivities attendedby White staff
  • no equity-focused discussion, strategy, or focus area exists

Noticing Racism in Your Classroom

Racial bias and inequity show up in various ways. Here are some examples of how racism might show up in early childhood settings:

  • mispronouncing, making fun of, or shortening children’s names that are not traditionally “White” names
  • assuming a Spanish-speaking Latino/a child is undocumented
  • assuming children eat only foods that are stereotypically assigned to a specific culture or ethnicity
  • favoring one group of children over other groups, such as calling on some children while ignoring others based on race, gender, language, class, etc.
  • treating a child differently because of their hair style, language, style of clothing, or other cultural ways of being
  • assigning roles based on gender or race, such as boys and White children being assigned leadership roles and girls and Black and Brown children being relegated to subservient roles
  • stereotyping Black girls as too loud, too angry, or too sassy and assuming big Black boys are aggressive
  • misinterpreting or inaccurately labeling children’s actions and ways of being as defiant
  • assuming families of color don’t care about their children (Iruka et al. 2020)

Taking Steps Toward Anti-Racism

Becoming anti-racist is an ongoing, continual commitment that is grounded in education, listening, self-reflection, and healing from the trauma of slavery and racism. Given our history and the present, how can people begin their journey toward becoming anti-racists? Here are specific actions that teachers, administrators, and others can take as daily practice.

1. Educate yourself through intentionally selected materials.Read books on racism and the true history of our country. A few include:

  • The 1619 Project,by Nikole Hannah-Jones (2019)
  • Between the World and Me,by Ta-Nehisi Coates (2015)
  • Caste: The Origins of Our Discontent,by Isabel Wilkerson (2020)
  • How to Be an Antiracist,by Ibram X. Kendi (2019)
  • Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption,by Bryan Stevenson (2015)
  • Stamped from the Beginning,by Ibram X. Kendi (2016)
  • Waking Up White: And Finding Myself in the Story of Race,by Debby Irving (2014)
  • White Fragility,by Robin DiAngelo (2018)
  • White Rage,by Carol Anderson and Pamela Gibson (2017)

Consider the perspective of the authors. If you are beginning this journey as a White person, reading White authors may be helpful, but don’t stop there. Read authors who bring a different perspective and experience to the work. There are Black authors who write for White audiences, and Black authors who write for Black audiences. These approaches present different entry points depending on where you are in your journey and include readers who want to continue being agitated in their complacency. Watch documentaries, such as13th, When They See Us, andAmerican Sonwith Kerry Washington. Seek out presentations, webinars, and other multimedia materials.

2. Follow Black men and women on social media, particularly Twitter.Bree Newsome Bass, Bakari Sellers, Jamil Smith, Clint Smith, Yamiche Alcindor, Zerlina Maxwell, Karine Jean-Pierre, Goldie, Joy Reid, Nikole Hannah-Jones, Ice-T, Soledad O’Brien, BrooklynDad_Defiant, BeAKing, Roxane Gay, Brittany Packnett-Cunningham, and Jonathan Capeheart are a few examples.

3.Reflect.Take time to journal your own experiences growing up within our racist society and how this has influenced how you operate in the world—where you live, where you send your children to school, and with whom you socialize. Do you self-isolateand if so, is it out of fear or comfort? How have your experiences and your worldview contributed to how you understand what it means to be part of a high-quality early childhood program? Self-reflection and a thorough understanding of our history ensure that we begin to see how White dominance is the norm and racism is endemic within early childhood education.

4.Commit to undoing your color-blindness.We often say some version of, “I choose to see the content of your character, not the color of your skin.” This may be true; however, color-blind ideology is harmful and counterproductive to the cause. If you do not see your color, you also do not see the reality of others’ experiences as different from the White experience. This leads to normalizing the White experience as a definition of “acceptable,” “normal,” or “typical.” Gaining a better understanding of Black existence and the existence of other historically marginalized groups is critical to committing to being an ally in the cause of social justice.

5.Stand beside, behind, but never in front of Black people. An essential step toward equity is to actively listen, learn, and let Black people lead the way forward. Rather than look for solutions at this time, White educators, administrators, researchers, and policymakers should strive to be an ally to their Black peers. Be ready to give up privilege in the service of anti-racism so that others who have experienced more oppression than you can lead you.

Photographs: © Getty Images
Copyright © 2021 by the National Association for the Education of Young Children. See Permissions and Reprints online

This article supports recommendations from NAEYC'sadvancing equity position statement
Recommendations for Everyone
Item 6:
Recognize that the professional knowledge base is changing.
Recommendations for Early Childhood Educators
Create a Caring, Equitable Community of Engaged Learners
Item 4: Consider the developmental, cultural, and linguistic appropriateness of the learning environment and your teaching practices for each child.
Observe, Document, and Assess Children’s Learning and Development
Item 3: Focus on strengths.

(Video) Anti-Racist Child Care Policies: How States Can Honor Families & Workers of Color in Subsidy Systems


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Brockenbrough, E. 2015. “ ‘The Discipline Stop:’ Black Male Teachers and the Politics of Urban School Discipline.” Education and Urban Society 47 (5): 499–522.

Campbell, F.A., C.T. Ramey, E. Pungello, J. Sparling, & S. Miller-Johnson. 2002. “Early Childhood Education: Young Adult Outcomes from the Abecedarian Project.” Applied Developmental Science 6 (1): 42–57.

Derman-Sparks, L. 2016. “What I Learned from the Ypsilanti Perry Preschool Project: A Teacher’s Reflections.” Journal of Pedagogy 7 (1): 93–105.

Derman-Sparks, L., & E. Moore. 2016. “Two Teachers Look Back: The Ypsilanti Perry Preschool, Part I.” Our Proud Heritage. Young Children 71 (4): 82–87.

Doucet, F., & J.K. Adair. 2013. “Addressing Race and Inequity in the Classroom.” Young Children 68 (5): 88–97.

Early, D., I. Iruka, S. Ritchie, O. Barbarin, G. Crawford, P.M. Frome, R.M. Clifford, M. Burchinal, C. Howes, D.M. Bryant, & R. Pianta. 2010. “How Do Pre-Kindergarteners Spend Their Time? Gender, Ethnicity, and Income as Predictors of Experiences in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms.” Early Childhood Research Quarterly 25 (2): 177–193.

Dumas, M., & K. Ross. 2016. “ ‘Be Real Black for Me:’ Imagining BlackCrit in Education.” Urban Education 5 (4): 415–442.

Gilliam, W. 2005. “Prekindergartners Left Behind: Expulsion Rates in State Prekindergarten Systems.” Policy brief. New York: Foundation for Child Development.

Gilliam, W., A. Maupin, C. Reyes, M. Accavitti, & F. Shic. 2016. “Do Early Educators’ Implicit Biases Regarding Sex and Race Relate to Behavior Expectations and Recommendations of Preschool Expulsions and Suspensions?” Research brief. New Haven, CT: Yale University Child Study Center.

Goff, P.A., M.C. Jackson, B.A.L. Di Leone, C.M. Culotta, & N.A. DiTomasso. 2014. “The Essence of Innocence: Consequences of Dehumanizing Black Children.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 106 (4): 526–545.

Griffin, C. 2019. “How Natural Black Hair at Work Became a Civil Rights Issue.” JSTOR Daily, July 3.

Heckman, J.J. 2006. “Skill Formation and the Economics of Investing in Disadvantaged Children.” Science 312 (5782): 1900–1902.

(Video) Equity, Antiracism, and Remote Teaching and Learning Strategies

Heckman, J.J., & G. Karapakula. 2019. “Intergenerational and Intragenerational Externalities of the Perry Preschool Project.” NBER Working Paper No. w25889. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.

Iruka, I., S. Curenton, K.A. Escayg, & T. Durden. 2020. Don’t Look Away: Embracing Anti-Bias Classrooms. Lewisville, NC: Gryphon House.

Jackson, P.S.B. 2014. “The Crisis of the ‘Disadvantaged Child’: Poverty Research, IQ, and Muppet Diplomacy in the 1960s.” Antipode 46 (1): 190–208.

Jensen, A. 1984. “Political Ideologies and Educational Research.” Phi Delta Kappan 65 (7): 460–462.

Kendi, I.X. 2019. How to Be an Antiracist. New York: One World.

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What are the impact of discrimination on early childhood development? ›

Children or young people who experience discrimination may:

feel different to other children or young people in some way, or “less than”; can also impact their feeling of belonging or how they see their identity. have lower self-belief or self-worth. feel powerless and frustrated.

What is the meaning of racist for kids? ›

Racism – The harmful belief that one's race or skin color is better than another's, and as a result, treating someone poorly based on their race.

What is bias in early childhood education? ›

Implicit bias is defined as the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner. While bias is inescapable, that does not mean that it shouldn't try to be minimized or addressed.

How is antiracist pedagogy developed? ›

1. Self-Educate and Acknowledge Racial Trauma. Essential first steps in this process are to self-educate about anti-racist pedagogical practices and begin an iterative cycle of self-reflection and continuous learning. It's important to understand the racial trauma that students may carry and bring into the classroom.

How can racism affect education? ›

How does racism in education

Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, approaches, methodologies and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community. › wiki › Teacher_education
impact Black students? Black students are less likely than white students to have access to college-ready courses. Black students have less access to honors or AP classes. Predominately Black schools are staffed with less qualified teachers.

How can we solve discrimination? ›

Dealing with discrimination
  1. Focus on your strengths. Focusing on your core values, beliefs and perceived strengths can motivate people to succeed, and may even buffer the negative effects of bias. ...
  2. Seek support systems. ...
  3. Get involved. ...
  4. Help yourself think clearly. ...
  5. Don't dwell. ...
  6. Seek professional help.
31 Oct 2019

What is an example of racism in a sentence? ›

Examples of racism in a Sentence

The recording career of the Henderson band was brief … due partly to the racism of booking agencies that didn't take on black acts until the mid-'30s, when Henderson's career was on the downswing.

What is the main difference between discrimination and stereotypes? ›

Prejudice is cultivated by stereotypes. Discrimination is negative, destructive, exclusionary behavior and action towards an individual or group of people based on social identity groups (race, gender, sex, ethnicity, class, etc.) Discrimination is harmful, and denies individuals or groups access to power.

What are some examples of prejudice? ›

Types of Prejudice
  • Gender Identity.
  • Sexism.
  • Nationalism.
  • Classism.
  • Sexual discrimination.
  • Racism.
  • Religious discrimination.
  • Linguistic discrimination.

How do you have anti-bias in a classroom? ›

Five Teaching Strategies to Create an Anti-Bias Classroom:
  1. Keep a library of anti-bias picture books in your classroom at all times. ...
  2. Realize and accept that you may feel uncomfortable when embarking on these discussions. ...
  3. Practice problem-solving and critical discussions with your class about other, easier topics.

What are the 4 goals of anti-bias education? ›

The 4 Goals of Anti-Bias Education: Each child will demonstrate self-awareness, confidence, family pride, and positive social identities.

What is an example of bias in the classroom? ›

In the classroom, these biases can manifest in a number of ways: A professor calling on certain students most frequently—for example, research shows a tendency by teachers at all levels to call primarily on white, male students.

How can you promote racial equality in the classroom? ›

Seven effective ways to promote equity in the classroom
  1. Reflect on your own beliefs. ...
  2. Reduce race and gender barriers to learning. ...
  3. Don't ask students of color to be “experts” on their race. ...
  4. Diversify your curriculum. ...
  5. Hold every student to high expectations. ...
  6. Avoid assumptions about students' backgrounds.
19 Mar 2020

What is culturally responsive pedagogical practices? ›

Culturally responsive pedagogy is a student-centered approach to teaching

Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, approaches, methodologies and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community. › wiki › Teacher_education
in which the students' unique cultural strengths are identified and nurtured to promote student achievement and a sense of well-being about the student's cultural place in the world.

What is culturally responsive teaching? ›

culturally responsive teaching: a pedagogy that uses students' customs, characteristics, experiences, and perspectives as tools for better classroom instruction. Students of color see themselves and their communities as belonging in academic spaces.

How does race affect students in the classroom? ›

Research shows that compared with white students, black students are more likely to be suspended or expelled, less likely to be placed in gifted programs and subject to lower expectations from their teachers.

What are the example of discrimination in school? ›

For example, a black, female, Muslim learner may experience racism, sexism and religious prejudice at different times while at school. These different forms of discrimination add to the burdens that the learner experiences.

Does race play a role in education? ›

Housee's (2008) study found that race and ethnicity between lecturers and students do shape the social dynamics of both the learning and teaching

Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, approaches, methodologies and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community. › wiki › Teacher_education
experience. According to both Housee (2008) and Downey and Pribesh (2004) race does have an impact on both the teachers and the students in the classroom.

Why is it important to prevent discrimination? ›

It is important to prevent discrimination happening to anyone. This is because it helps protects their rights and wellbeing since everyone deserves to access the same rights and have the same opportunities in life.

What is discrimination short answer? ›

Discrimination is the act of making distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discriminated on the basis of race, gender, age, religion, disability, or sexual orientation, as well as other categories.

How does discrimination affect society? ›

Discrimination affects people's opportunities, their well-being, and their sense of agency. Persistent exposure to discrimination can lead individuals to internalize the prejudice or stigma that is directed against them, manifesting in shame, low self-esteem, fear and stress, as well as poor health.

What are 3 examples of discrimination? ›

Types of Discrimination
  • Age Discrimination.
  • Disability Discrimination.
  • Sexual Orientation.
  • Status as a Parent.
  • Religious Discrimination.
  • National Origin.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Sexual Harassment.

What is racialism mean? ›

Racism, also called racialism, is the belief that humans can be divided into separate and exclusive biological entities called “races"; that there is a causal link between inherited physical traits and traits of personality, intellect, morality, and other cultural and behavioral features; and that some races are ...

What is the sentence of discrimination? ›

discrimination noun [U] (WORSE TREATMENT)

Some immigrants were victims of discrimination. The law made racial discrimination in employment a serious crime. She claims she is a victim of age discrimination. Discrimination is also prejudice against people and a refusal to give them their rights.

What are some examples of stereotypes in school? ›

There is a widespread belief that girls are better at language than boys, and that boys are better in math. This stems from stereotypes claiming that boys are more rational, Cartesian and therefore more gifted in science, and that girls are more emotional and creative and therefore better in the arts and literature.

How is stereotyping harmful? ›

According to Psychology Today, research shows that stereotypes often pave way for intergroup hostility and toxic prejudices around age, race, and other social distinctions. Social circles can be created based on common stereotypes or shared interests.

What is a stereotyping simple definition? ›

: to believe unfairly that all people or things with a particular characteristic are the same. It's not fair to stereotype a whole group of people based on one person you don't like.

What are the reasons for discrimination in society? ›

People may be discriminated against because of their age, disability, ethnicity, origin, political belief, race, religion, sex or gender, sexual orientation, language, culture and on many other grounds.

What is a real life example of discrimination? ›

The dentist says she is not prepared to treat her anymore because of her behaviour. The dentist is refusing Jeannette a service because of behaviour related to her disability. This may be discrimination arising from disability.

What are three ways in which schools can address discrimination? ›

Schools can tackle discrimination by promoting democracy, respect for human rights and citizenship. To ensure that all students' needs are met equally, schools need to prioritise language and cultural competences, multiperspectivity in history and gender equality.

How can we ensure an anti biased approach is maintained within an early education and care environment? ›

With these principles in mind here are some simple ideas for implementing anti-bias practice in your early childhood setting:
  • Talk about your own experiences. ...
  • Help put rejection in perspective. ...
  • Shed some light on social dynamics. ...
  • Find examples that children can relate to. ...
  • Foster friendships in a variety of settings.
9 Apr 2019

What might you do to mitigate any bias when conducting assessments in the early childhood setting? ›

6 Ways to Ensure Your Assessment Practices are Fair and Unbiased
  1. Don't rush. ...
  2. Plan your assessments carefully. ...
  3. Aim for assignments and questions that are crystal clear. ...
  4. Guard against unintended bias. ...
  5. Ask a variety of people with diverse perspectives to review assessment tools. ...
  6. Try out large-scale assessment tools.
14 Aug 2019

What are the benefits of supporting the full participation of each child? ›

Early learning programs that support the full participation of every child build on these strengths by promoting a sense of belonging, supporting positive social relationships, and enabling families and professionals to gain advocacy skills that positively impact the life of every child.

What are 4 ways children learn to be respectful of diversity? ›

Teaching Children about Respecting Differences
  • Celebrate differences! ...
  • Create diversity in your own environment. ...
  • Teach your children about empathy. ...
  • Unlearn your own biases. ...
  • Keep the conversation going!
7 Aug 2020

Which of the following is a goal for anti-bias education? ›

Anti-bias Education Goals

(Identity) Each child will demonstrate self-awareness, confidence, family pride, and positive social/group identities. (Diversity) Each child will express comfort and joy with human diversity, accurate language for human differences, and deep, caring human connections.

What can early childhood educators do to address bias and injustice in their classrooms? ›

These strategies can help you begin anti-bias education, or go deeper into it, in your classroom.
  • Incorporate Diverse Books That Tell Stories About Children Experiencing Everyday Life. ...
  • Create Activities That Allow Children to Share and Celebrate Their Identities. ...
  • Prevent and Address Microaggressions with Role-Plays.
7 Jan 2021

What is an example of cultural bias in education? ›

Standardized college entrance tests provide an example of cultural bias in testing. There is a stark difference between the results of different racial groups on these tests. For example, the average ACT score for Hispanic students is more than 3 points lower than that of white students.

Why is it important for an educator to be aware of their own biases? ›

“By identifying and addressing our own biases as educators

Teacher education or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, approaches, methodologies and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community. › wiki › Teacher_education
, we have the ability to directly impact the engagement of our students. When students are engaged, they are better learners.”

What is bias in child care? ›

Unconscious bias refers to judgements we make about other people which we're unaware of and which happen outside of our control. For example, if you interview someone for a nursery apprentice role who is noticeably overweight, your unconscious bias may assume that they're lazy.

What is bias and example? ›

Bias is a tendency to prefer one person or thing to another, and to favour that person or thing. Bias against women permeates every level of the judicial system. There were fierce attacks on the BBC for alleged political bias. Synonyms: prejudice, leaning, bent, tendency More Synonyms of bias. 2.

What is cultural bias in childcare? ›

Sometimes when individual culture is practiced in a diverse community, biasness and competition is likely to emerge, in terms of differences in appearance, language and food. The majority cultural group will try to dominate the minority group and enforce their cultural practices upon them.

What is implicit bias for kids? ›

Implicit bias is the process of making assumptions about someone based on their race, gender, age, or appearance.

What can early childhood educators do to address bias and injustice in their classrooms? ›

These strategies can help you begin anti-bias education, or go deeper into it, in your classroom.
  • Incorporate Diverse Books That Tell Stories About Children Experiencing Everyday Life. ...
  • Create Activities That Allow Children to Share and Celebrate Their Identities. ...
  • Prevent and Address Microaggressions with Role-Plays.
7 Jan 2021

What are the 3 types of bias examples? ›

Confirmation bias, sampling bias, and brilliance bias are three examples that can affect our ability to critically engage with information.

Why is it important to know your bias? ›

Why does this matter? Conscious and unconscious bias impact the way we interact with the world. If we don't confront our biases, we miss the opportunity to learn, connect, and grow. If our biases go unchecked, we find ourselves in a vacuum of people who think, look, and navigate the world the same way we do.

What does bias mean easy definition? ›

1a : an inclination of temperament or outlook especially : a personal and sometimes unreasoned judgment : prejudice. b : an instance of such prejudice. c : bent, tendency.

How do you interact with culturally appropriate ways with children? ›

Being aware of your own culture opens you to understanding and being more sensitive to the cultures of others.
  1. communicating in a. culturally appropriate way.
  2. Speak clearly and concisely.
  3. Check for understanding.
  4. Be aware of non-verbal. ...
  5. Be aware of the impact of culture.
  6. You are communicating. ...
  7. All cultures are equal.

What are some ways to avoid cultural bias? ›

4 Ways to avoid cultural bias in international people assessments
  1. Apply culturally fair assessment instruments. ...
  2. Consider how tests are translated. ...
  3. Use local norm groups. ...
  4. Ensure your assessors are culturally aware.

What is an example of cultural bias in education? ›

Standardized college entrance tests provide an example of cultural bias in testing. There is a stark difference between the results of different racial groups on these tests. For example, the average ACT score for Hispanic students is more than 3 points lower than that of white students.

What is an example of bias for kids? ›

For example, you might be biased to think that another student who has dirty, torn clothes might be from a poor family, when maybe they just had an accident that day or spilled their lunch on their shirt.

What are some real life examples of bias? ›

Examples of Bias in Behavior

If they're biased toward women, they might hire only women because they feel they make better employees for some gender-related reason. Conversely, if they're biased against women, they might hire a man over a more-qualified female candidate.

What are the 3 types of implicit bias? ›

Implicit bias is based on unconscious attitudes regarding race, ethnicity, age, gender, and sexual orientation. As such, three types of implicit bias include race bias, gender bias, and age bias.

How can we ensure an anti biased approach is maintained within an early education and care environment? ›

With these principles in mind here are some simple ideas for implementing anti-bias practice in your early childhood setting:
  • Talk about your own experiences. ...
  • Help put rejection in perspective. ...
  • Shed some light on social dynamics. ...
  • Find examples that children can relate to. ...
  • Foster friendships in a variety of settings.
9 Apr 2019

What are the values we want to teach the children through our rules for Behaviour? ›

The 10 Most Important Values for Children
  • Honesty. For your child to develop honesty, you must be honest yourself. ...
  • Manners. Having good manners is another essential value to teach your child. ...
  • Responsibility. ...
  • Respect. ...
  • Love. ...
  • Consideration. ...
  • Perseverance. ...
  • Courage.
7 Apr 2022

How do you implement social justice in the classroom? ›

Fostering a classroom community of conscience

The first way to promote social justice in the classroom is to create a community of conscience. This environment ensures that students' voices, opinions and ideas are valued and respected by their instructor and peers.


1. Anti-Racism Training: The Big Unequitable Picture; Criminal Justice, and Education
(Banneker-Douglass Museum)
2. Anti Racist Practice Disproportionality and Systemic Racism
(UCDavis CPE - Human Services)
3. Considering Cultural, Racial, and Linguistic Bias in Early Childhood Measurement Development
(Institute of Education Sciences)
4. “Do the Work: The Building of an Anti-Racist Curriculum in K-12 Schools”
(The Educator's Room)
5. How to Raise a Socially Conscious, Anti-Racist Child | NYT Parenting
(New York Times Events)
6. Becoming an Antiracist Workplace
(Health Links)
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