Valency of Carbon - Tetravalency, Hybridization, Carbon Compounds | CollegeSearch (2023)

One atom of carbon can form four covalent bonds as the carbon has a valency of four. Valency can be defined as the element's combining power when it forms other chemical molecules or compounds. Thus, carbon's tetravalency refers to its ability to bond with four other carbon atoms from other elements. Carbon is a versatile element that can form covalent bonds with other elements such as hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen, chlorine, and nitrogen. Carbon can also form compounds with double and triple bonds between carbon atoms. These carbon chains could be straight, branched, or in the form of rings.

What is the valency of Carbon?

An element's valency describes how well it can combine with other atoms to form chemical compounds or molecules. In this situation, carbon has a valence of four because it contains four valence electrons. To achieve the noble gas configuration, carbon forms four covalent bonds and shares its valence electrons. Carbon has a valency of four. The exterior electronic configuration of a carbon is 2S2 and 2P2.

Valency of Carbon - Tetravalency, Hybridization, Carbon Compounds | CollegeSearch (1)

Carbon has established its importance among the other elements due to its unique properties. Carbon's important properties are as follows:

(Video) Tetravalency of carbon | what is the valency of carbon

  • Catenation
  • Tetravalency
  • Size of a carbon atom

Organic compounds are defined as compounds that contain covalently bonded carbon atoms in their molecules and can exist in solid, liquid, or gaseous states. Let's look at how carbon's tetravalent nature affects carbon compounds.

Why is the Valency of Carbon 4?

Carbon has a valency of four because it has four electrons in its outermost shell and thus requires four more electrons to complete its octet configuration.

  • Carbon has an atomic number of 6
  • Carbon electronic configuration = 2, 4 = 1s2 2s2 2p2 = [He] 2s2 2p2

Because the outermost cells have four electrons, the carbon atom cannot lose or gain four electrons because it requires a large amount of energy. As a result, carbon atoms share their four electrons with other atoms. Because the electron is shared and the number of electrons shared is four. As a result, the valency of carbon is = 4, and thus "Carbon is Tetravalent."

Carbon cannot give or receive electrons; it can only share them. Many of the compounds it forms are affected by its tetravalent nature (4 valency of carbon).

(Video) (Basics of GOC) Carbon HYBRIDIZATION in Organic Compounds | Super trick

Hybridization of Carbon

The process of combining atomic orbitals to create new hybrid orbitals suitable for representing bonding qualities is known as hybridization. Hybridised orbitals are useful in characterising the form of molecular orbitals, in addition to being an important aspect of valence bond theory. The atomic orbitals that contribute to hybridization are known as hybrid orbitals. One s-orbital and three p-orbitals on the carbon atom, for example, form a set of sp3 orbitals in methane, which has the chemical formula CH4. These orbitals are aimed at the four hydrogen atoms at the vertices of a typical tetrahedron.

In ethene, a double bond exists between the carbon atoms (C2H4). The carbon in this case is hybridised by sp2. The 2s orbital combines with two of the three 2p orbitals available in sp2 hybridization, yielding a total of three sp2 orbitals and one p-orbital. By overlapping two sp2 orbitals in ethane, two carbon atoms form a sigma bond, and each carbon atom forms two covalent connections with hydrogen by overlapping all s-sp2 with 120o angles. The pi connection between the carbon atoms is formed by a 2p-2p overlap. Experiments show that the hydrogen-carbon bonds are of comparable length and strength.

Many bonds exist between non-similar atoms as well. When two oxygen atoms are brought close to opposite sides of a carbon atom in CO2, one of the p orbitals on each oxygen forms a pi bond with one of the carbon's p-orbitals. The sp hybridization forms two double bonds in this case.

sp2 Hybridization

It is known to be sp2 hybridised when three equivalent orbitals are formed by combining one s and two p orbitals from the same shell of an atom. The sp2 hybridised orbitals form a flat triangular arrangement with a 120° angle between bonds in this case.

(Video) Tetravalency of Carbon

  • Ethene is an example of sp2 hybridization (C2H4).
  • In Ethene (C2H4), a single carbon atom forms three sigma bonds and one pi bond.
  • Because carbon has three sigma bonds, it will combine two of its valence orbitals to form three identical orbitals.
  • The hybridization is known as sp2 hybridised orbitals when the carbon atom is bound to three atoms.
  • This hybridised orbital repels each other equally, resulting in the linear shape of sp hybridised carbon in ethene (C2H4) and a flat triangular arrangement with a 120° angle between bonds.

Valency of Carbon and Its Compounds - Alkane

An alkane has single bonds between its carbon atoms. The simplest alkane with more than one carbon atom is ethane C2H6. Each carbon has three hydrogens attached to it and is held together by a single bond. As a result, each carbon in the alkane has one carbon bond and three hydrogen bonds, for a total of four valencies.

Valency of Carbon and its Compounds - Alkyne

Three bonds connect the carbon atoms in an alkyne. Ethyne, also known as acetylene C2H2, is an alkyne molecule that contains more than one carbon atom. A triple bond connects the carbons, with one hydrogen linked to each carbon. As a result, each carbon in the alkyne has three carbon bonds and one hydrogen bond, for a total of four valencies.

Valency of Carbon and Its Compounds - Alkene

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons with the chemical formula CnH2n and double carbon bonds. This and cycloalkanes have the same molecular formula. Alkenes are named similarly to alkanes, with the exception that the suffix is now -ene. Each carbon is double bonded, with two hydrogens bound to it. As a result, each carbon in the alkyne has two carbon bonds and two hydrogen bonds, giving it a total valency of four.

Tetravalence of Carbon

Carbon's ground state electronic configuration is 1s2, 2s2, 2p2. Because it has four valence electrons, the possibility of four bonds forming is greatest. The bonds formed by s orbital electrons will be different from those formed by p orbital electrons. So, in the formation of one molecule of CH4, one C atom will be combined with four H atoms.

(Video) Introduction to Hybridization and Carbon Tetravalency

C(s)-H(s), C(s)-H(s), C(p)-H(s), and C(p)-H(s) bonds can all be formed (s). We have two 'directional' C (p)-H(s) bonds and two non-directional C(s)-H(s) bonds (s). (Note: S orbitals are spherical and have no specific direction, whereas p orbitals have shapes in three directions: x, y, and z-axis.) The bond strength will also differ because the C (p)-H(s) bond is weaker than the C(s)-H(s) bond because s overlapping is stronger.

However, nearly all of the CH4 bonds are identical. This causes an issue. Hybridization theory has been proposed as a solution to this problem. It is primarily a concept in which atomic orbitals are combined with new hybrid orbitals that are best suited for electron pairing to form chemical bonds.

Three p and one s-orbital are hybridised in fig to produce four identical sp3 hybridised orbitals. Similarly, sp and sp2 hybridization can occur. The only difference will be that sp2 will only have two p orbitals. According to the VSEPR theory, sp and sp2 hybridised molecules have a planar structure. In contrast, sp3 hybridised molecules adopt a tetrahedral shape to become more stable (this structure leads to a minimum energy state).

Valency Chart

The valency chart of the first 30 elements of the periodic table is given below in the table along with these elements' atomic number:

(Video) Carbon and it's compounds - 2 | Tetra valency & Hybridization | 10th EM CHEMISTRY

Element

Atomic Number

Valency

Hydrogen

1

1

Helium

2

Lithium

3

1

Beryllium

4

2

Boron

5

3

Carbon

6

4

Nitrogen

7

3

Oxygen

8

2

Fluorine

9

1

Neon

10

Sodium

11

1

Magnesium

12

2

Aluminium

13

3

Silicon

14

4

Phosphorus

15

3

Sulphur

16

2

Chlorine

17

1

Argon

18

Potassium

19

1

Calcium

20

2

Scandium

21

3

Titanium

22

4

Vanadium

23

5, 4

Chromium

24

2

Manganese

25

7, 4, 2

Iron

26

2, 3

Cobalt

27

3, 2

Nickel

28

2

Cooper

29

2, 1

Zinc

30

2

FAQs

Is carbon valency 4+ or 4? ›

The valency of carbon is 4 and valency of oxygen is 2 .

What is the valency of carbon in carbon dioxide compound? ›

What is the molecular formula of carbon dioxide? The valency of carbon is 4 and that of oxygen is 2 .

Why carbon has 2 and 4 valency? ›

As the four valence electrons of each carbon atom from its outermost shell are involved in covalent bonding so its valency is 4 (Tetravalent).

Why is the valency of carbon 4 and not 6? ›

Now, we know that the number of electrons in the outermost shell of carbon is 4. In order to achieve the noble gas configuration of the nearest noble gas, carbon makes four bonds with hydrogen. Therefore, the valency of carbon is 4.

What is 4 valency called? ›

What is Tetravalency? Carbon has a valency of four, so it is capable of bonding with four other atoms of carbon or atoms of some other monovalent element. This is known as tetravalency of carbon.

Which compound is 4 carbon compound? ›

So the correct option is 'Oxaloacetic acid'.

What is the valency of carbon in alkanes? ›

Therefore, the valency of Carbon( ) in alkanes like methane( C H 4 ), and alkene like propene( C 3 H 6 ) will be 4.

How do you find the valency of a compound? ›

Mathematically we can say that if the outermost shell of an atom contains 4 or less than 4 electrons, then the valency of an element is equal to the number of electrons present in the outermost shell and if it is greater than 4, then the valency of an element is determined by subtracting the total number of electrons ...

What are the 4 valence electrons of carbon? ›

The number of valence electrons in carbon is 4. The atomic number is 6. The electronic configuration is 2,4. Was this answer helpful?

Why carbon does not show +4 and 4 valency? ›

Carbon cannot add up 4 more electrons in its outer orbital that is 2p orbital. Hence carbon cannot form C4− ions so easily. If carbon loses 4 electrons from its outer shell, it has to form C4+ ion. Carbon has to satisfy tetravalency, by sharing electrons with the other atoms.

Why is Covalency of carbon 4? ›

-The number of valence electrons is usually the same as the group number where the element is located. -So, we know that the number of valence electrons of carbon is 4 and the number of valence electrons of oxygen is 6.

Why is group 4 called carbon family? ›

Group 14 elements or IV A elements are known as carbon family. These elements shows similarity in the properties and reactivity so they are known as carbon family.

What is 6 carbon called? ›

The number of carbon atoms in an organic compound is given by the word root for it. The root word for a hydrocarbon compound with 6 carbon atoms is Hex. So, if an alkane has 6 carbon atoms in it in a straight line it will be called hexane.

Why is carbon tetravalent hybridization? ›

In simple ways, its electronic configuration can be written as 2,4. It means it has 4 electrons in the outermost shell. Carbon obeys the octet rule and forms 4 covalent bonds with other atoms to get a stable electronic configuration. Thus, carbon is tetravalent (It means the valency of carbon is 4.)

Which has the highest valency of 4? ›

If an atom has three electrons in an octet, it has to give them away so as to attain an octet. If an atom has five electrons, it has to gain three electrons to attain an octet. If an atom has four electrons, then it needs or gives four electrons to attain octet. Therefore the highest valency of an element is four.

What is class 5 valency? ›

Valency is simply equal to the number of electrons gained, lost or shared by an atom of an element to achieve the nearest noble gas configuration. For example, the valency of sodium (Na) is 1, magnesium (Mg) is 2, Chlorine (Cl) is 1 etc.

What is the valency of first 20 elements? ›

The Valency of First 20 Elements
ElementSymbolValency
CarbonC4
NitrogenN3
OxygenO2
FluorineF1
16 more rows

What are the three types of valency? ›

Three types of valency are distinguished : primary or classical, coordinate, and nonclassical. The first relates to simple compounds and to the components of multiple ones, the second to coordination compounds, and the third to transition-metal carbonyls and similar species.

What is 11 carbon chain called? ›

n-undecane

What do you call a 5 carbon compound? ›

Alkanes with five or more carbon atoms are named by adding the suffix -ane to the appropriate numerical multiplier, except the terminal -a is removed from the basic numerical term. Hence, C5H12 is called pentane, C6H14 is called hexane, C7H16 is called heptane and so forth.

What is a 6 carbon compound? ›

Glucose is a six carbon compound, it is broken down to, a three carbon compound in every cell to release energy. JEE Main 2022 Question Paper Live Discussion.

What is the valency of alkyne? ›

<br> (ii) Valency of each carbon atom in alkyne is four.

Is there valency of compounds? ›

Valency is used to write the chemical formula of a compound. It means by valency we can know how the atoms of an element will combine with atoms of another element.

What is meant by valency of compound? ›

valence, also spelled valency, in chemistry, the property of an element that determines the number of other atoms with which an atom of the element can combine. Introduced in 1868, the term is used to express both the power of combination of an element in general and the numerical value of the power of combination.

What is the valency of 42? ›

Molybdenum is the element with atomic number 42 and is having electronic configuration [Kr]5s14d5, where atomic no. of Kr = 36. Thus no. of valence electrons is 1, which is no of an electron in 5s subshell.

What is Group 4 valency? ›

The main group consists of carbonium, silicium, germanium, tin, and lead. The main valency of the elements is IV, and the members of the group show a variation from nonmetallic to metallic behaviour in moving down the group.

What are 4 carbon atoms called? ›

4.2 Alkanes
Number of Carbon AtomsNameMolecular Formula
4ButaneC4H10
5PentaneC5H12
6HexaneC6H14
7HeptaneC7H16
16 more rows

Is carbon a valency of 5? ›

What is the Valency of Carbon? The valency of carbon is four and one atom of carbon can make four covalent bonds.

Why c2 is not possible? ›

The second and the third carbon to carbon bonds are above and below the ring. The fourth bond (quadruple bond) if formed would be pointing away from the two carbons. In order for this bond to exist, the other three bonds need to be tremendously bent and this is energetically very unfeasible.

Does carbon have 4 or 8 valence electrons? ›

Atomic carbon has six electrons: two inner shell (core) electrons in the 1s orbital, and four valence (outer most shell) electrons in the 2s and 2p orbitals.

Does carbon have 4 or 5 valence electrons? ›

Valence Electrons in Carbon

Like other group 14 elements, carbon has four valence electrons. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outer energy level of an atom that are involved in chemical bonds.

What is maximum Covalency? ›

maximum covalency is equal to the number of valence electrons. For example, Be contains 2 valence electrons (2 s electrons). Its maximum covalency is 2.

Does co2 have 4 covalent bonds? ›

Since there are four shared pair of electrons in the molecule of carbon dioxide, the number of covalent bonds formed will be four.

What is maximum Covalency of carbon? ›

Maximum covalency of carbon is four.

What is group 14 called? ›

carbon group element, any of the six chemical elements that make up Group 14 (IVa) of the periodic table—namely, carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).

What is Group 15 called? ›

Group 15 elements are also called the Nitrogen family. It includes nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony and bismuth elements.

What is Group 13 called? ›

boron group element, any of the six chemical elements constituting Group 13 (IIIa) of the periodic table. The elements are boron (B), aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and nihonium (Nh).

What is called c60? ›

Buckminsterfullerene (C60) is a spherical carbon allotrope where 60 atoms are assembled in pentagons and hexagons, in a geometry similar to a soccer ball. All the carbon atoms are connected by single and double bonds, these are often called BuckyBalls.

What is a 7 carbon chain called? ›

The longest continuous carbon chain has seven C atoms, so this molecule is named as a heptane. There is a two-carbon substituent on the main chain, which is an ethyl group. To give the substituent the lowest numbering, we number the chain from the right side and see that the substituent is on the third C atom.

What are the first 20 alkanes? ›

Terms in this set (20)
  • Methane. Ch4.
  • Ethane. C2H6 (CH3CH3)
  • Propane. C3H8 (CH3CH2CH3)
  • Butane. C4H10 (CH3(CH2)2CH3)
  • Pentane. C5H12 (CH3(CH2)3CH3)
  • Hexane. C6H14 (CH3(CH2)4CH3)
  • Heptane. C7H16 (CH3(CH2)5CH3)
  • Octane. C8H18 (CH3(CH2)6CH3)

What is tetravalent valency? ›

In chemistry , tetravalence is the state of an atom with four valence electrons available for covalent chemical bonding in its outermost electron shell , giving the atom a chemical valency of four. An example is methane (CH4): the tetravalent carbon atom forms a covalent bond with four hydrogen atoms.

Is carbon sp2 or sp3 hybridized? ›

A carbon atom is sp2 hybridized when bonding takes place between 1 s-orbital with two p orbitals. There is a formation of two single bonds and one double bond between three atoms.

Are carbon radicals sp2 or sp3? ›

A carbon radical is sp2 hybridized with an unpaired single electron occupying an unhybridised p-orbital, having trigonal pyramidal or planar geometry possessing an angle of 120⁰.

What is the valency of first 30 elements? ›

The valency of the first 30 elements of the periodic table is given below.
...
Java Prime Pack.
ElementAtomic NumberValency
Valency of Argon180
Valency of Potassium (K)191
Valency of Calcium202
Valency of Scandium213
26 more rows
10 Oct 2022

Which group has the highest valency? ›

Sulphur has six valence electrons as it belongs to VI group of periodic table. Hence it has maximum valency.

Which element has valency of 5? ›

Elements having 5 valence electrons are placed in Group 15. The elements of group 15 are nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony.

Does carbon have 4 valency? ›

The valency of carbon is four and one atom of carbon can make four covalent bonds.

Does carbon have 4 valence electron? ›

Atomic carbon has six electrons: two inner shell (core) electrons in the 1s orbital, and four valence (outer most shell) electrons in the 2s and 2p orbitals.

Is there a 4 degree carbon? ›

4-degree or quaternary carbon atom are those carbon atom in which all 4 valencies of carbon atom is satisfied by other 4 carbon atoms. e.g. (CH3)4-C in 2,2-dimethylpropane in this that C carbon atom is quaternary carbon atom.

Why is valency of carbon 6? ›

Definition: Valency equals the number of valence electrons for atoms having four or fewer valence electrons. For atoms with more than four valence electrons, valency equals 8 – the number of valence electrons. Carbon has four valence electrons in its valence shell. Thus, it has four valency.

What is Covalency? ›

In order to achieve a stable electronic configuration, electron pairs are shared between atoms of the same or different elements and it results in the formation of a molecule. This is called covalency.

What are Group 4 elements called? ›

Group 4 is the second group of transition metals in the periodic table. It contains the four elements titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), hafnium (Hf), and rutherfordium (Rf). The group is also called the titanium group or titanium family after its lightest member.

What elements has 7 valence electrons? ›

The family of elements having seven electrons in the valence shell is halogens, i.e., chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine, astatine.

What family has 5 valence electrons? ›

Elements having 5 valence electrons are placed in Group 15. The elements of group 15 are nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony.

What is the 5 carbon rule? ›

As a general rule monofunctional compounds with three or fewer carbon atoms will be soluble in water. Those with six or more carbon atoms will be insoluble. Those compounds with four or five carbons are borderline.

What is sp3 hybridised carbon atom? ›

In sp3 hybridization, the carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms. In this case, 1 s orbital and 3 p orbitals in the same shell of an atom combine to form four new equivalent orbitals. The arrangement of orbitals is tetrahedral with a bond angle of 109.5°.

What is 1 degree 2 degree and 3 degree carbocation? ›

Methyl carbocation: If no carbon is attached to the carbon with the positive charge it is simply called as methyl carbocation. If one, two or three carbon is attached to the carbon with the positive charge it is called the primary carbocation, secondary carbocation, and tertiary carbocation respectively.

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