Renowned as the world's most popular non-anglophone study destination, over 350,000international students study in Germany. Having established itself in the list of top 5 study-abroad destinations among international students, the country is home to over 13 top universities in Germany that make the world’s top 250 prestigious institutes.
From a globally reputed curriculum with 20,000 courses to extremely low tuition rates, the country has proved itself a perfect overseas destination for international applicants after Canada, UK, and theUSA. India is among the second largest senders of international students (6.1%) in Germany preceded by China. According to Economic Times, the number of international students in Germany has increased from 64,000 in 2020-2021 to 72,000 and 80,000 lately in the 2021-2022 winter semester.
In the 21st Century, Germany has presented itself as a global powerhouse and is currently the 4th largest GDP in the world. This adds points to its credit when it comes to seeking employment opportunities post-graduation which is also reflected in its high employment rate of nearly 80%. Apart from this, it’s a gradual decrease in the rate of unemployment over the decade just makes the country more promising for international students seeking to study in Germany.
Study in Germany: Top Universities for International Students
Germany has a range of prestigious institutes across both public and private sectors for the applicants to choose from. To aid you in the process, we have compiled a list of the 10 most reputed universities in the country along with their corresponding international student percentage.
|Name of the institute||THE World Rankings 2022||QS Rankings 2022||International Student Population|
|Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich||#32||#64||17%|
|Technical University of Munich||#38||#=50||27%|
|Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin||#73||#=58||19%|
|University of Tübingen||#=78||#177||14%|
|Humboldt University of Berlin||#74||#=128||18%|
|University of Freiburg||#108||#172||23%|
|RWTH Aachen University||#108||#165||21%|
|University of Bonn||#112||#=226||13%|
|Free University of Berlin||#83||#127||21%|
Some of the top institutes in the country along with their enrollment statistics are depicted in the graph below.
Why Study in Germany?
From globally-reputed universities to almost free education at the Undergraduate level, Germany offers a great deal of promise for all the individuals across the globe. Extensive student support, scholarships, and thousands of diverse programs are some of the attractions that fascinate international students seeking to study in the nation.
Some other factors that contribute to credibility in the favor of the country are listed below.
- Tuition-free university education: There is no tuition fee in majority of the institutes. Students have to pay a nominal fee of 250 EUR (~20,930 INR) per semester, which covers the administrative costs.
- A wide array of courses: There are more than 1,800 international programs along with 18,000 Bachelors's, Masters and doctoral degree programs to choose from.
- World-class universities: There are over 400 institutions of higher education in Germany out of which, 150 universities offer courses and degrees in English. Around 30 universities in Germany are ranked in the world’s top 500 universities. The average acceptance rate for a German institute is around 92%.
- Dual Education System: Allows students to pursue an apprenticeship in a company along with a vocational course at a vocational school. International students can earn up to 14 to 19 EUR (~1170-1590 INR) per hour.
- Economical cost of living: The cost of living in Germany amounts to 841 to 1,287 EUR per month, which is quite low as compared to its European counterparts.
- Financial Aid and Scholarships: Plenty of scholarships are offered to both undergraduate and postgraduate students in Germany by DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) and other non-governmental foundations.
- Employment/Job opportunities for graduates: It has a graduate unemployability rate of 5.4% which is the lowest in Europe. Nearly 77% of the graduates find employment in Germany within months of completing their degrees.
What to Study in Germany?
Germany provides thousands of varied courses across its 400 public and private universities that provide a perfect fit program for every individual. Since the tuition fee in the country is comparatively lower than other nations around the world, Germany majorly attracts students of STEM courses looking for degrees in Computer science, Mathematics, Engineering along with programs in Natural science, Business, and Economics, etc.
Other popular top courses to study in Germany among international students in the country comprise Law, Psychology, Medicine and Dentistry, Natural Sciences and Architecture are also equally popular.
Germany also provides a wide array of unusual degrees such as Aerial Archaeology, Bionics, fusing technology, among others. The 5 most popular streams along with other relevant information regarding the same are mentioned below.
|Popular Program||Best German University for the course||Total Students Enrolled in Germany|
|Engineering (Mechanical Engineering)||Technical University of Munich||71,352|
|Business Management (MBA)||University of Mannheim||52,168|
|Humanities||Humboldt University of Berlin||37,619|
|Computer Sciences||Technical University of Munich||20,000|
|Mathematics||University of Bonn||10,000|
|Fine and Applied Arts||Technical University of Berlin||24,412|
How to Study in Germany: Application Process
If you have reached a final decision that Germany is the country you are applying to in the upcoming session, it is highly recommended to start working on your application at the earliest possible opportunity. To serve you in the process, the step-by-step guide for the application process of Germany is as compiled below.
- Explore your options: Since the nation has nearly 400 countries offering over 20,000 programs, choose the alternative that best fits your needs and budget.
- Plan your finances: Germany is renowned for offering almost free to affordable education to aspirants irrespective of their nationalities. While most public universities in the country are free of cost, private and master programs might charge fees at par with other renowned institutes of the world.
- Prepare your application: Universities in Germany usually follow their own application process, minimal application fee (not more than 50 EUR) and deadlines. Some institutes are organized centrally and accept applications via UniAssist. Make sure you have carefully gone through all the eligibility requirements of your particular course
- Submit your application: The country has 2 admission seasons with their individual deadlines. Applicants are highly encouraged to send in applications at least 4 to 6 months prior to these deadlines, especially if they have to apply for a visa to avoid last-minute complications like therejection of a visa etc.
- Apply for a study in Germany visa: As soon as you have received your acceptance letter, apply for a student visa at your nearest German Embassy along with relevant documents like passport, health insurance and proof of funds. From January 2020, an applicant has to demonstrate funds of around 10,236 EUR to be eligible for a student visa.
Admission Requirements to Study in Germany
Some basic information regarding the admission process and basic requirements are as tabulated below.
|Where to apply||Uni Assist portal/ Individual portals of respective universities|
|Application Fee||75 EUR per course with 30 EUR for each extra course in the same semester|
|Basic Requirements||Transcripts, Standardised tests like GMAT or GRE|
|Additional Requirements||Valid Visa, Interview (video interview on a case-to-case basis), CV, Statement of purpose|
|German/English Language Requirements||IELTS: 6.5; TOEFL: 69 to 80 (German language requirements for courses in German)|
When to Study in Germany: Application Cycle
Germany accepts admission applications season-wise. The primary 2 seasons of intakes in the country are Summer and Winter for most of its institutes. The deadlines for german universities are usually common, except a certain few that observe their own admission process and respective deadlines.
- Applications need to be made by January 15.
- The summer semester runs from March to August at Applied Sciences universities and April to September at Research universities.
- Applications need to be made by July 15.
- The winter semester runs from September to February at Applied Sciences universities and October to March at Research universities.
Study in Germany Cost
Germany in comparison to other European countries is not considered highly expensive and is quite affordable when it comes to a student enrolled in one of the institutes in the nation. In fact, it is ranked #15 highest in terms of cost of accommodation and is found to be cheaper than the UK, Italy, Denmark, Norway, France, or the Netherlands.
While the average cost to study in Germany differs depending upon the city, type of program, and university a student opts for, but an average amount of 850 EUR (~71,150 INR) per monthcan go up to 1,500 to 2,000 EUR (1.25 to 1.67 lakhs INR). The estimated fee and other expenses comprising the total budget list for surviving in the country is as mentioned below.
Is Studying in Germany Free?
Germans consider Education to be a basic right that should not be capitalized on and thus charge no fees or quite affordable fees when it comes to international students. While many undergraduate courses and all the doctoral courses are free of cost for international applicants, some universities might charge tuition fees as high as 20,000 and30,000 EUR for public and private universities, respectively.
|Level of Education||Tuition Fee (in INR Per Year)|
|Undergraduate Programs||41,870 (public) to 16.74 lakhs (private sector)|
|Graduate Programs||16.74 lakhs (public) to 25.11 lakhs (private sector)|
|Doctoral Programs||Free of Cost (250 EUR administrative fee, per sem)|
While many renowned universities like University of Stuttgart, University of Mannheim and University of Bremen are free of cost, some other popular German Universities (mainly private) along with their respective estimated fee are depicted in the chart below.
Cost of Living in Germany
As discussed above, the cost of living varies depending on the individual's personal expenses and the city one chooses to stay in. For instance, Munich is one of the most expensive German cities (up to 1,500 EUR per month) while Berlin being the capital city is comparatively cheaper. The estimated cost of accommodation in the country is tabulated as follows:
|Type of Expenditure||Cost (in INR Per Month)|
|Accommodation and utilities||25,120 to 41,870|
|Food and supplies||16,747 to 20,935|
|Phone and internet||2,512|
|Leisure and hobbies||4,190 to 8,373|
|Travel costs (car and public transport)||7,870|
|Books and Supplies||1,674 to 2,090|
How to Study in Germany with Scholarships?
Since the tuition fee in the country is so low, any candidate can actually study in the country for free if he/she obtains a studentship to fund their education. The German Academic Exchange Service, popularly known as the DAAD provides a range of awards and funding services for international students hoping to enroll at a reputed institute in the country. These scholarships are offered to both domestic and international candidates at all levels including academics and researchers.
Another source of gaining funding for studying in Germany is the Federal Ministry of Education and Research or BMBF that hosts a site dedicated to providing information on scholarships for the aspirants of the country.
Scholarships to Study in Germany for International Students
From government-funded awards to non-government-funded scholarships and university-specific studentships, Germany as a country provides a range of awards for its international aspirants. Some such scholarships in Germany for international students are as follows:
|Name of Scholarship||Eligibility||Amount (in EUR Per Month)|
|Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung Scholarships in Germany for International Students||International doctoral candidate looking to pursue masters/doctorate at a German university||1,091 EUR|
|Heinrich Boll Scholarships in Germany for International Students||International students who appeared for their university entrance qualification, outside Germany and wish to pursue a Masters or Ph.D. Degree in Germany||842 EUR (Masters) and 991 EUR (PhD)|
|German Studies Research Grant||Graduates and doctoral students from North America whose research works are focussed on German cultural studies||1,277 to 2,555 EUR|
|Development-Related Postgraduate Courses (EPOS)||Graduates with a minimum professional experience of 2 years; outstanding academic achievement||1,217 EUR (Masters) and 1,388 EUR (PhD)|
|RISE Germany - Research Internships in Science and Engineering||Science and Engineering undergraduates who have completed at least 2 years of study||743 EUR|
Jobs after Studying in Germany
Thanks to the generous immigration policy of Germany, students from any background and nationalities can stay in the country for up to 18 months post completing their degrees and find their desired job in the time span. The majority of students prefer to enter the professional world post their graduation and this is where having a strong command of the German language will add wonders to your job profile.
As discussed above, since the unemployment rate in the country has been on a decrease for years now, there is a lot of scope of ending up with high paying-jobs in Germany. Some of the statistics for the last 2 years regarding job opportunities in the nation are as mentioned below.
|German Labour||2022||2020 (first quarter)||2019 (last quarter)|
|Employed Persons||45.0 millions||44.6 millions||44.5 millions|
|Minimum Wages||9.82 (EUR/hour)||9.35 (EUR/hour)||9.19 (EUR/hour)|
Since Germany is renowned for its Automobile Industry across the world and is a hub for Engineering students, a degree in the field or related discipline will obviously be of great merit. Other industries that an international candidate can consider are Telecommunication, IT and Computers, Finance, etc. An estimated average salary for students of different streams is provided below.
In a nutshell, Germany is rightly one of the top 5 coveted destinations for studying overseas that not only provides an impressive education curriculum and innovative research options, but also some of the finest jobs in the industry. From trendy Berlin to traditional Munich, the nation harbors a rich diversity and welcomes applications from around the globe that are considered on equal grounds without any partiality.
The country thus is a worthwhile pursuit for bright and diligent aspirants, especially for MS in Germany, and should definitely make your list if you are considering studying abroad in the near future.
Ques. When should I apply for universities in Germany?
Ans. Universities in Germany offer admission in two academic terms of summer and winter. The summer application deadlines is on January 15 and the winter deadline is on July 15.
Ques. How much does it cost to study in Germany?
Ans. In Germany, education is considered as a fundamental right and hence is offered free or cost or with affordable fees. The cost of pursuing ug programs range between 0-41,000 INR in public institutes.
Ques. What is the average GPA in the German universities?
Ans. The average GPA of the students in the universities in Germany is 3.0 on a 4.0 scale.
Ques. Is English enough to study in Germany?
Ans. International students need to know either English or German or both to study in the German universities. Students need 6.5 in IELTS, and 69 to 80 in TOEFL examto study in Germany.
Ques. What courses are in demand in Germany?
Ans. The most popular courses in Germany include Power Engineering, Management and Technology, International automotive Engineering, Mechatronics, Optical Technologies.
Ques. How much do MBA graduates in Germany earn?
Ans. Individuals working in executive and management sectors in Germany earn an average annual salary of 61,900 Euro per year.
Ques. Which job is in high demand in Germany?
Ans. Some of the most sought after jobs in Germany are Software developers, Programmers, Electronics Engineers, Nurses and IT consultants among others.
Ques. Why study in Germany is free?
Ans. Germans believe that education should not be commercialized and thus charges no or minimal fees for education in the German institutes.
DAAD scholarships in Germany requirements aren't too difficult to meet. To secure DAAD funding, applicants must have completed a Bachelors degree or be in their final year of studies. There is no upper age limit, although there may be a maximum time between finishing your Bachelors and taking up a DAAD grant.
- When applying for a Study Scholarship, you must submit a letter of motivation.
- When applying for a Research Grant, you must submit a detailed proposal.
- Submit a reference from a university teacher.
In most cases, applicants have to prove that they have around 11.208 euros at their disposal for one year. This amount of money is called "Regelbedarf", which means it is the amount of money that is estimated to be needed by a student to live in Germany for one year.
DAAD Scholarships – The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) offers many scholarships for international students to study in Germany at various degree levels. Click the link to view the DAAD scholarships database.
Germany. A particularly popular country for admission among students from all over the world. No wonder: In Germany almost all universities are free of charge and the country's largest scholarship fund — DAAD — provides a scholarship to cover living expenses.
- DAAD Scholarships for Development-related postgraduate courses.
- DAAD Helmut-Schmidt-Programme (Master's scholarship for public policy and good governance)
- Heinrich Boll Scholarships in Germany for international students.
- Goethe Goes Global - masters scholarships.
- 1.1 United Kingdom.
- 1.2 United States Of America.
- 1.3 Canada.
- 1.4 Germany.
- 1.5 France.
- 1.6 Republic of Korea.
- 1.7 Sweden.
- 1.8 Norway.
- Fulbright program in the USA.
- Azerbaijan Government Fully Funded Scholarships.
- Rotary Peace Fellowships.
- Australia Awards.
- E4D Scholarships for Developing Countries in Switzerland.
- GIST Scholarships in South Korea.
- ESED Scholarships.
Selection is based on subject-related criteria. DAAD scholarships do not have to be paid back. They usually consist of a monthly scholarship payment (currently, for example, € 861 for graduates and € 1,200 for doctoral/PhD students) and a flat-rate travel allowance.
The application process is pretty simple if you have all the required documents. However, you should make sure to go prepared. Here's how to apply for the Germany Student Visa: Go to the German Embassy or Consulate in your country.
What are the chances of German student visa rejection? Ans. Despite having a 92% selection rate, German immigration officers might reject your visa based on the above-mentioned pointers. So ensure to avoid them regardless and not become a part of the Germany visa rejection rate percentage (8%.)
The German welfare association Paritätische Gesamtverband has recently revealed that almost every third person studying in Germany lives below the poverty line. This has been followed by calls for BAföG reforms and higher student loans.
The minimum requirement to apply for a DAAD scholarship normally is an IELTS (band 6) certificate or TOEFL (minimum score 550 paper based, 213 computer based and 80 internet based). German: For those courses taught in German, a DSH 2 or Test DaF 4 certificate is necessary for matriculation.
All public now offer free-of-cost education and students only have to only bear minimum administrative costs of around €250 per semester. The low education cost has made Germany the most sought-after study hub.
The governments of USA, UK, etc. provide many scholarships to international students in order to promote the internationalization of their education systems. Programs such as the Chevening scholarship, Hubert Humphrey Fellowship Program, Fulbright Foreign Student Program, etc.
A: Undoubtedly, you need to put some effort to acquire a student visa for any country, however, the most prominent options to accomplish easy attainment of student visa as an Indian student are Australia, Canada, and New Zealand.
- Rhodes Scholarship.
- Fullbright Scholarship.
- Gates Cambridge Scholarship.
- Princeton Scholarship.
- Mitchell Scholarship.
- Churchill Scholarship.
- Marshall Scholarship.
- Jardine Scholarship.
10 of the Most Affordable Places to Study Abroad
- Norway. ...
- Taiwan. ...
- Germany. ...
- France. ...
- Mexico. ...
- India. ...
- Argentina. ...
- The top 10 German university cities for lowest cost of living.
- Chemnitz. Chemnitz is particularly affordable for students because the rents are relatively low. ...
- Erfurt. ...
- Leipzig. ...
- Dresden. ...
- Rostock. ...
- Gelsenkirchen. ...
- Humboldt University of Berlin.
- University of Bremen.
- University of Cologne.
- Heidelberg University.
- Ludwig Maximilians University.
- University of Gottingen.
- Technical University of Berlin.
- Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU Darmstadt)
- $10,000 “No Essay” Scholarship.
- $2,000 Nitro College Scholarship – No Essay.
- $2,500 Christian Connector Scholarship.
- $5,000 Graduate School Scholarship.
- $2,000 College Repayment Grant.
- Annual Protestant Faith Based College Scholarship.
- Annual Catholic College Scholarship.
Australia is known as the best student destination globally because of its high-quality education, low cost of living and opportunities to work. Australia welcomes international students from all over the world, and the higher education system in Australia differs from other countries.
- Eiffel Excellence Scholarship Programme (France): ...
- Chevening Scholarships (UK): ...
- Endeavour Postgraduate Awards (Australia): ...
- Fulbright Scholarships (USA): ...
- Rotary Foundation Global Study Grants (Global): ...
- Uniplaces Scholarship (Global): ...
- GREAT Scholarships(UK):
|Rank||College||Students receiving need-based aid|
Yale University Scholarship is a fully funded scholarship for international students. This scholarship is offered for undergraduate, masters and PhD.
- Fullbright Scholarships. ...
- The American Association of University Women International Fellowship. ...
- Aga Khan Foundation International Scholarship | Scholarships For International Students. ...
- Chevening Scholarships | Scholarships For International Students.
India: minimum grade 75% or GPA 7.5/10 with NET/CSIR; applications from IITs and the IIS are especially welcome.
Is there an age limit for DAAD scholarships? No, there is usually no fixed age limit. There are individual exceptions in programmes in which this is explicitly requested by an international partner.
DAAD Germany Scholarships 2023 for Masters & Ph. D. is a Fully Funded Scholarship in Germany for International Students. Full Tuition Fee Covered. Monthly allowance for accompanying members of the family.
Which Countries Have The Highest Rejection Rates? According to Schengen Visa Statistic 2021, the 4 countries with the highest rejection rates were: Sweden, Norway, France, and Denmark.
Common Reasons behind Student Visa Rejection
Lack of sufficient financial funds or proofs to support foreign education. The inability of confirming a necessary return to India after completion of education. Incorrect or false documents. Inadequate language or communication skills.
If you are planning to visit Germany for a short stay trip (up to 90 days), then you have to apply for a Schengen short-stay visa to Germany, also known as a C-type visa, and if you plan to stay in Germany longer than 90 days, you will have to apply for a German long-stay visa, also known a D-type visa.
As of 2022, as a foreigner in Germany you need a minimum of €934 euros per month for living expenses. So, you are required to have a total of €11,208 in your bank account before you apply for a German internship visa.
In addition to simply getting into their university of choice, students must gather all the necessary paperwork for the German student visa application. Then, they must complete the study visa interview.
Since your German student visa is only valid for three months after arrival, you have to get a residence permit. To apply for a residence permit, you need: The letter of acceptance to the university.
- ➕Free education. ...
- ➖Working limits. ...
- ➕ Strong economy. ...
- ➖ Language barrier. ...
- ➕Good Institutions. ...
- ➖ Lack of educational facilities. ...
- Apply to German universities with Rostrum Education:
- Medicine and Dentistry. Doctors and dentists are valuable professionals throughout the entire world. ...
- Law. Lawyers are also highly important. ...
- Industrial Engineering. ...
- Engineering. ...
- Mathematics and Computer Science. ...
- Natural Sciences. ...
- Business and Economics. ...
No, there is no age limit to applying to study programs in Germany. In fact, Germany is known to have a reputation for having the continent's oldest graduates—on average, 28 years old.
Furthermore, if you are successful in the first round of your DAAD Scholarship application, you will be invited to the interview, which is another crucial part of the selection process.
Recipients of different scholarships get a monthly allowance of at least 750 EUR (888 USD), for the duration of their studies in Germany. Indian students are eligible for 25 DAAD scholarships, out of 188 scholarship programs available in 2021.
Program Period: Between 12 and 36 months depending on the length of the chosen study program. DAAD Scholarship Deadline: Depending on chosen study program; please check deadlines here.
Tuition fees in Germany for international students studying at a private university can cost anywhere between €25,000 - €40,000, depending on your course. MBAs and Engineering courses are usually the most expensive.
Student jobs and internships
Students from abroad can also work in Germany alongside their studies. Students from EU/EEA countries are allowed to work for up to 20 hours per week during the semester, just like German students are. There is no limit to how much they can earn during semester breaks.
- United States. #1 in Study Abroad Rankings. ...
- United Kingdom. #2 in Study Abroad Rankings. ...
- France. #3 in Study Abroad Rankings. ...
- Italy. #4 in Study Abroad Rankings. ...
- Spain. #5 in Study Abroad Rankings. ...
- Japan. #6 in Study Abroad Rankings. ...
- Canada. #7 in Study Abroad Rankings. ...
Nordic nations Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden all offer opportunities to study free or at low cost: In Norway, university study is available free of charge to all students, regardless of study level or nationality.
- Italy. Average living costs: 700 – 1,000 EUR / month. ...
- Germany. Average living costs: 700 – 1,100 EUR / month. ...
- France. Average living costs: 700 – 950 EUR / month. ...
- Spain. ...
- Lithuania. ...
- Business. ...
- Education. ...
- Computer Science.
If you want to study abroad without IELTS then you could go to Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the top-most countries in Asia after Singapore for studies. There is no compulsory need for English test proof for studying Bachelor's, Master's, or Ph.
Everyone can study in Germany tuition-free!
This applies to almost all study programmes at public universities. There is a tiny catch: If you are from outside the EU, you will need to get a residence permit before you arrive in the country; and you will have to finish your studies in Germany.
All German public institutes offer free education and students are only required to pay some administrative charges. This means that tuition fees will be waived completely, irrespective of a student's nationality. Overseas students will also have to prepare sufficient funds for living expenses.
' The true answer to this question is 'NO'. There are no fully funded scholarships for international students. Some scholarship awarding bodies may foot nearly 85% of the total costs, but these are limited in number. Not to mention, the competition for these scholarships will be very high.
Although you can study for free at public German universities as an undergraduate, there is a charge per semester for enrolment, confirmation and administration. This is typically no more than €250 (~US$290) per semester, but varies depending on the university.
It is one of the popular public universities in Germany for international students. Known as the Free University of Berlin, this public university was founded in 1948. Students get the best education with proper hand on practice at an affordable cost. FUB is ranked among the top universities in the world.
Nordic nations Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden all offer opportunities to study free or at low cost: In Norway, university study is available free of charge to all students, regardless of study level or nationality.
You can also get an education loan to fund your education. A majority of students who don't have enough money to fund their education, take up a student loan and pay it back later. Many banks in India as well as abroad provide loans to study. You could also take up a student loan in Germany through the university.
The Government of the Czech Republic Scholarships program is fully funded and provided by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This program is available for citizens of developing countries to study at the Czech Republic higher education institutions.
1. USA. For decades, the US has reigned supreme as the world's most popular study abroad destination. The country's prestigious institutions dominate global university rankings, attracting students from across the world with an appetite for academic excellence.
Do I need to know German at all? Simply put, no! To study at a German university, you don't need to speak German as long as you meet the minimum language requirements for your desired degree program. However, you will have more options if you consider programs that are taught in English AND German.
Germany offers affordable and high-quality options for higher education, making it the No. 1 study destination in the list of cheapest countries to study abroad. Free education in Germany can be availed at public universities for undergraduate and Doctoral programs.