Manner of Articulation: Diagram & Examples (2023)

Manner of articulation definition

In phonetics, manner of articulation is about how sounds are produced by the 'articulators'. Articulators are the organs in the vocal tract which enable human beings to make sounds. They include the palate, tongue, lips, teeth etc. and are shown in the image below. When we speak, we use these articulators to do so. There are two basic types of speech sound:

Consonants: Speech sounds created by a partial or total closure of the vocal tract.

Vowels: Speech sounds produced without stricture in the vocal tract.

Manner of Articulation Diagram

Here's a handy diagram to show us the vocal tract, including all of the articulators used when creating consonant sounds.

Manner of Articulation: Diagram & Examples (1)The human vocal tract contains all of the articulators which are used when creating consonant sounds. - StudySmarter Original

Manner of Articulation of Consonants

We can categorize manner of articulation into two groups: obstruents and sonorants.

Obstruents are speech sounds created by obstructing the airflow in the vocal tract. All consonants are obstructed sounds in some way. They include stops or plosives, fricatives, and affricates.

/ p, t, k, d, b /

Sonorants, or resonants, are speech sounds created by continuous and unobstructed airflow through the vocal tract. Sonorants can include vowels as well as consonants. In this group, we also find nasal liquids and approximants. We categorize manner of articulation into two further categories: voiced and voiceless.

/ J, w, m, n /

If there is no vibration in the vocal cords during sound production, the sound is voiceless (like the sound you make when you whisper).

When making the sounds / f / and / s /, you can feel that there is no vibration in your Adam's apple.

If there is a vibration in the vocal cords during sound production, the sound is voiced .

While making the sounds / b / and / d /, you can feel the vibration on your Adam's apple.

When we're talking about consonants and manner of articulation, we also need to look at the place of articulation (where sounds are produced in the vocal tract).

Manner of articulation and place of articulation

Place of Articulation Chart

Before we jump into the analysis, here are the various 'places of articulation':

Place of articulation

How it is created

Bilabial

(Video) IPA Basics : Manner of Articulation

Contact between the lips.

Labio-dental

Contact between the lower lip and the upper teeth.

Dental

Contact between the lower lip and the upper teeth.

Alveolar

Contact between the tongue and the alveolar ridge (this is the ridged area between the upper teeth and the hard palate).

Palatal

Contact between the tongue and the hard palate or alveolar ridge.

Post-alveolar

The tongue makes contact with the back of the alveolar ridge.

Velar

The back of the tongue makes contact with the soft palate (velum).

Glottal

A restriction of the airflow at the glottis.

Now, let's look more at the specific types of manners of articulation.

Manner of Articulation Chart

Manner of articulation

How it is created

Plosive

A short, quick release of air after closed stricture.

Fricative

Close stricture that creates friction when air is released.

Affricate

Start with producing a plosive and blending immediately into a fricative.

Nasal

(Video) Voicing, Place & Manner of Articulation - Part 1

Air is released through the nasal passages.

Approximant

Close proximity of the articulators without causing any closure or friction.

Let's have a look in more detail:

Manners of articulation

1. Plosives or stops

In phonetics, a plosive consonant, also known as a stop, is made when the vocal tract is closed and the airflow is blocked as it leaves the body. The blockage can be made with the tongue, lips, teeth or glottis.

When analysing a plosive, we consider the way the articulators are used (lips, tongue, palate); we check the closure of the airstream and the release of the airstream when the vocal organs separate.

Manner of articulation examples:

In English, there are six plosives:

PLOSIVE

BILABIALp, b
ALVEOLARt, d
POST ALVEOLARt, d
VELARg, k
DENTALt, d

Thanks to the different ways in which speakers of English pronounce sounds, the sounds /t/ and /d/ can be alveolar, post-alveolar or dental. This is because phonemes are merely ideal representations of real-world speech sounds, which can differ slightly from person to person.

2. Fricatives

Like plosives, fricatives are restricted as they leave the body. We can use teeth, lips, or tongue to limit the flow of air. Unlike plosives, fricatives are longer sounds (you can sustain a fricative, like the phoneme / f /, but you can't sustain a plosive, like the phoneme / p /). Some fricatives have a hiss-like quality. These are called sibilants. In the English language, there are two sibilants: / s / and / z /. For example, sick, zip and sun.

In English, there are nine fricatives:

FRICATIVE

DENTALð, θ
LABIODENTALf, v
ALVEOLARs, z
POSTALVEOLARʃ, ʒ
glottalH

The fricative sounds / z, ð, v, ʒ / are voiced, and the sounds / h, s, θ, f, ʃ / are voiceless.

Manner of articulation examples:

Voiced fricatives:

/ v /: vat, van

/ ð /: then, them

/ z /: zip, zoom

/ ʒ /: casual, treasure

Voiceless fricatives:

(Video) Manner of Articulation

/ f /: fat, far

/ s /: site, cycle

/ h /: help, high

/ ʃ /: ship, she

/ θ /: think, north

3. Affricates

Affricates are also known as semi-plosives and are created by combining a plosive and a fricative consonant. There are two affricatives: / t ʃ / and / dʒ /.

Both sounds are post-alveolar, which means we create them with the tongue behind the alveolar ridge (part of the palate just behind your upper teeth, before the hard palate). The sound / tʃ / is a voiceless affricate, while the sound / dʒ / is a voiced affricate.

/ tʃ /: chair, choose

/ dʒ /: jump, jet

4. Nasals

Nasal consonants, also known nasal stops, are made by blocking the airflow from the mouth, so it comes out of the nose instead. In nasal vowels, by contrast, the sound is generated by lowering the soft palate to allow the airflow out of both mouth and nose.

The consonants / m, n, ŋ / are not caused by the nose, but by the tongue or lips that prevent the airflow. Because of the vibration of the vocal cords, we consider nasal consonants voiced.

There are three nasal consonants: / m, n, ŋ /.

NASAL
BILABIALm
ALVEOLARn
VELARŋ

5. Approximants

Without any contact, approximants are also known as frictionless continuants, created by air moving between the vocal organs. Approximants, also known as lateral sounds, are created by allowing the airflow to leave by the sides of the mouth.

There are four approximant groups, as follows:

Bilabial approximant: the sound is made by the lips almost closing but without any contact.

(Video) Introduction to Articulatory Phonetics (Consonants)

With / w / in words like where wind and we.

Palatal approximant: the sound is made by the middle of the tongue almost touching the palate.

With / j / in words like yell, yes and you.

Bilabial and palatal approximants are semi-vowels, as the sound /w/ is similar to /u/ and /j/ is similar to /i/. Semi-vowels have a similar sound to vowels, but they are not vowels because they are non-syllabic. Non-syllabic means they have no nucleus for a syllable.

Alveolar lateral approximant: the sound is created by the tip tongue forming a closure with the alveolar ridge allowing the airflow to leave by the sides.

With / l / in words like mall, hall and like.

Alveolar frictionless approximant: the sound is created by the tongue tip almost making contact with the alveolar ridge.

With / r / in words like rose, run and red.

Manner of Articulation - Key Takeaways

  • Manner of articulation is about how the 'articulators produce sounds.
  • There are two main sound groups: consonants and vowels.
  • There are two other important categories: obstructions and sonorants - the first are produced by obstructing the airflow, the second without obstruction.
  • There are five types of consonants: plosives or stops, fricatives, affricates, nasals and approximants.
  • Approximants are vowel-like.

FAQs

What is the manner of articulation with examples? ›

Individual manners. Plosive, often called stop, is an oral occlusive, where there is occlusion (blocking) of the oral vocal tract, and no nasal air flow, so the air flow stops completely. Examples include English /p t k/ (voiceless) and /b d ɡ/ (voiced).

What are the 7 manners of articulation? ›

In NAE, there are seven places of articulation: Bilabial, Labiodental, Dental, Alveolar, Palatal, Velar, and Glottal. refers to how the sound is made. In NAE, there are six manners of articulation: Stop, Fricative, Affricate, Nasal, Liquid, and Glide.

What are the 5 manners of articulation? ›

Summary
  • Affricate.
  • Approximant.
  • Degree of stricture.
  • Flap.
  • Fricative.
  • Lateral.
  • Manner of articulation.
  • Median.

What is the manner of articulation of Z? ›

Summary of English consonants
[p]voicelessplosive
[z]voicedfricative
[ʃ]voicelessfricative
[ʒ]voicedfricative
[ɹ]voicedapproximant
19 more rows

How do you find the manner of articulation? ›

IPA Basics : Manner of Articulation - YouTube

What are the types of articulation? ›

Articulations vary in the amounts of movement they allow as well as their structures. Joints are classified based on function, the amount of movement they allow, into three categories: synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, and diarthrosis.

What is manner of articulation in consonant sound? ›

We stated that in consonant sounds the airflow is interrupted, diverted or restricted as it passes the oral cavity. The respective modifications that are made to a sound are referred to as their manner of articulation.

Why manner of articulation is important? ›

Manner of articulation in second language learning is important, because pronunciation doesn't come as naturally as when learning our first language. It's important to know how sounds are made so that you can pronounce sounds correctly and speak more clearly.

What is difference between place and manner of articulation? ›

The place of articulation refers to that area in one of the resonating cavities (larynx, mouth) where the articulators are opposing some kind of stricture or obstacle to the passing of air. The manner of articulation refers to the way the articulators are set so that the resonance effect is possible.

What is liquid in manner of articulation? ›

liquid, in phonetics, a consonant sound in which the tongue produces a partial closure in the mouth, resulting in a resonant, vowel-like consonant, such as English l and r. Liquids may be either syllabic or nonsyllabic; i.e., they may sometimes, like vowels, act as the sound carrier in a syllable.

What are the 9 fricatives? ›

There are a total of nine fricative consonants in English: /f, θ, s, ∫, v, ð, z, З, h/, and eight of them (all except for/h/) are produced by partially obstructing the airflow through the oral cavity.

How are the English consonants classified by their manner of articulation? ›

Consonants are usually classified according to place of articulation (the location of the stricture made in the vocal tract, such as dental, bilabial, or velar), the manner of articulation (the way in which the obstruction of the airflow is accomplished, as in stops, fricatives, approximants, trills, taps, and laterals ...

What are the 24 consonant sounds and examples? ›

English has 24 consonant sounds. Some consonants have voice from the voicebox and some don't. These consonants are voiced and voiceless pairs /p/ /b/, /t/ /d/, /k/ /g/, /f/ /v/, /s/ /z/, /θ/ /ð/, /ʃ/ /ʒ/, /ʈʃ/ /dʒ/. These consonants are voiced /h/, /w/, /n/, /m/, /r/, /j/, /ŋ/, /l/.

What are the 21 consonants? ›

In English, these letters are B, C, D, F, G, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, S, T, V, X, Z and often H, R, W, Y.

What are the 4 categories of consonants? ›

place of obstruction) consonants are classified into: 1) labial, 2) lingual, 3) glottal. This principle provides the basis for the following distinctive oppositions: labial vs. lingual (what-hot), lingual vs. glottal (that-hat), labial vs.

What are the sixteen manners of articulation? ›

Consonants-Manner of Articulation
  • Plosives:
  • Fricatives:
  • Affricates:
  • Nasal:
  • Liquids:
  • Approximants:

Is nasal a manner of articulation? ›

Nasal sounds are mainly voiced in English, and because the velum in our mouth lowers, and the air releases through nose, thus this manner of articulation is called nasal.

What are the places of articulation in English? ›

In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is a location along the vocal tract where its production occurs. It is a point where a constriction is made between an active and a passive articulator.

What are the 4 types of articulation? ›

The four types of articulation disorders are collectively referred to as SODA, which stands for Substitution, Omission, Distortion, and Addition.

What are the 4 articulation errors? ›

A child can make the following articulation errors when producing speech sounds: Substitutions, Omissions, Distortions, and/or Additions.

What are the 5 organs of speech? ›

Sounds are produced by human speech organs using the breath stream which leaves the lungs. Speech organs include the lips, teeth, tongue, palate, uvula, nasal and oral cavities, and vocal cords, as located in Figure 2.

What are the 3 types of consonant sounds? ›

To wrap up the discussion, these three properties are used to identify the type of consonant sounds. Based on these dimensions, the consonant sounds are may be voiced or voiceless, bilabial or alveolar and plosives or nasals. You can break it down further as you like to classify the sounds produced by the consonants.

What is the place of articulation for r? ›

There are two primary articulations of the approximant /r/: apical (with the tip of the tongue approaching the alveolar ridge or even curled back slightly) and domal (with a centralized bunching of the tongue known as molar r or sometimes bunched r or braced r ).

What are the 2 types of consonant sounds? ›

Consonants can be grouped into two major groups: voiced and unvoiced consonants.

What is the place and manner of articulation for the sound B? ›

If we obstruct our vocal tract at the lips, like for the sounds [b] and [p], the place of articulation is bilabial. The consonants [f] and [v] are made with the top teeth on the bottom lip, so these are called labiodental sounds.

What is Manner place and voicing? ›

A place-voice-manner analysis (PVM) is a relational (or error) analysis that describes a child's error patterns in terms of the three broad categories of consonant production—place, voice, and manner.

What kind of consonants are l and r? ›

The consonants /l/ and /r/ are both voiced, liquid consonants. However, /l/ is pronounced with the the tip of the tongue touching the gum ridge, while /r/ is pronounced with the tongue near (but not touching!) the roof of your mouth. You can hear the difference between /l/ and /r/ in these words.

What are glides and liquids? ›

The glides (/j/ and /w/) and the liquids (/9r/ and /l/) in American English can be grouped together in a larger category called the approximants. This name comes from the fact that the articulators are brought into closer contact, or approximation, than in any of the vowels.

Which consonants are liquids? ›

This page contains examples of variants of the “liquid” consonants /l/ and /r/ in English speech. Liquid consonants are articulatorily complex sounds that show a great deal of variation in different accent varieties and in different syllabic and phonological contexts.

What is difference between fricatives and affricates? ›

Fricatives and Affricates

Fricatives are characterised by a “hissing” sound which is produced by the air escaping through a small passage in the mouth. Affricates begin as plosives and end as fricatives. These are homorganic sounds, that is, the same articulator produces both sound, the plosive and the fricative.

What is affricate sound? ›

affricate, also called semiplosive, a consonant sound that begins as a stop (sound with complete obstruction of the breath stream) and concludes with a fricative (sound with incomplete closure and a sound of friction).

What is fricative example? ›

In addition to the f and v sounds, examples of fricatives in English are s as in “sitter,” z as in “zebra,” and the two th sounds as in “think” and “this.”

What are consonant sounds with examples? ›

A consonant is a speech sound that is not a vowel. It also refers to letters of the alphabet that represent those sounds: Z, B, T, G, and H are all consonants. Consonants are all the non-vowel sounds, or their corresponding letters: A, E, I, O, U and sometimes Y are not consonants. In hat, H and T are consonants.

What are the main classifications of consonant sounds in English? ›

Consonants are either voiced (sonant) or voiceless (surd). Voiced consonants are pronounced with the same vocal murmur that is heard in vowels; voiceless consonants lack this murmur. The voiced consonants are b, d, g, l, r, m, n, z, consonantal i, and v.

How many types of consonants are there? ›

There are 24 consonant sounds in most English accents, conveyed by 21 letters of the regular English alphabet (sometimes in combination, e.g., ch and th).

What are the 44 sounds in English with examples? ›

Consonants
PhonemeIPA SymbolExamples
1bbug, bubble
2ddad, add, milled
3ffat, cliff, phone, enough, half, often
4ggun, egg, ghost, guest, prologue
20 more rows

What are the 20 vowels sound? ›

English has 20 vowel sounds. Short vowels in the IPA are /ɪ/-pit, /e/-pet, /æ/-pat, /ʌ/-cut, /ʊ/-put, /ɒ/-dog, /ə/-about. Long vowels in the IPA are /i:/-week, /ɑ:/-hard,/ɔ:/-fork,/ɜ:/-heard, /u:/-boot.

Which word has all 5 vowels? ›

Eunoia, at six letters long, is the shortest word in the English language that contains all five main vowels. Seven letter words with this property include adoulie, douleia, eucosia, eulogia, eunomia, eutopia, miaoued, moineau, sequoia, and suoidea. (The scientific name iouea is a genus of Cretaceous fossil sponges.)

What are the 5 vowels? ›

You might be able to recite the letters considered vowels in the English language: A, E, I, O, U, and sometimes Y. But what makes a vowel a vowel? Vowels and consonants are two different categories of sounds that linguists (in the branch of linguistics called phonetics) use to explain how speech sounds work.

Which letters are called vowels? ›

The alphabet is made up of 26 letters, 5 of which are vowels (a, e, i, o, u) and the rest of which are consonants. A vowel is a sound that is made by allowing breath to flow out of the mouth, without closing any part of the mouth or throat.

What are the 5 types of consonants? ›

It is this kind of closure that characterizes consonant sounds. In English there are approximately 24 consonants and these are arranged into five main groups: (1) plosives, (2) nasals, (3) fricatives, (4) affricates, and (5) approximants. We will now consider each of these in turn.

What are the 5 plosive sounds? ›

English pronunciation contains 6 plosive phonemes: /p,b,t,d,k,g/: The sounds /b,d,g/ are voiced; they are pronounced with vibration in the vocal cords. /p,t,k/ are voiceless; they are produced with air only.

What are the five types of consonants? ›

Manner of articulation indicates the type of contact that is made between the two articulators and is defined simply by the five main groups described above: plosive, nasal, fricative, affricate or approximant.

What is manner of articulation and place of articulation? ›

The place of articulation refers to that area in one of the resonating cavities (larynx, mouth) where the articulators are opposing some kind of stricture or obstacle to the passing of air. The manner of articulation refers to the way the articulators are set so that the resonance effect is possible.

What is articulation in phonetics? ›

Articulatory phonetics refers to the “aspects of phonetics which looks at how the sounds of speech are made with the organs of the vocal tract” Ogden (2009:173).

What is a phoneme discuss with examples? ›

A phoneme is a sound or a group of different sounds perceived to have the same function by speakers of the language or dialect in question. An example is the English phoneme /k/, which occurs in words such as cat, kit, scat, skit.

What is Manner place and voicing? ›

A place-voice-manner analysis (PVM) is a relational (or error) analysis that describes a child's error patterns in terms of the three broad categories of consonant production—place, voice, and manner.

What is manner of articulation of consonant sounds? ›

The manner of articulation is the way the airstream is affected as it flows from the lungs and out of the nose and mouth. When we pronounce consonant sounds the airflow is interrupted, diverted or restricted as it passes the oral cavity.

What is the place and manner of articulation for vowels? ›

In vowels, the narrowest part of the vocal tract is usually in the middle of the mouth, in the region of the palate. "Manner of articulation" refers to various other things, including whether the airflow is central or lateral, oral or nasal, retroflex or non-retroflex, the phonation type, and the degree of stricture.

What are the 24 consonant sounds with example? ›

English has 24 consonant sounds. Some consonants have voice from the voicebox and some don't. These consonants are voiced and voiceless pairs /p/ /b/, /t/ /d/, /k/ /g/, /f/ /v/, /s/ /z/, /θ/ /ð/, /ʃ/ /ʒ/, /ʈʃ/ /dʒ/. These consonants are voiced /h/, /w/, /n/, /m/, /r/, /j/, /ŋ/, /l/.

What are the 4 types of articulation disorders? ›

What Are Speech Sound (Articulation) Disorders
  • Organic speech sound disorder. ...
  • Functional speech disorder. ...
  • Developmental phonological disorder. ...
  • Developmental apraxia of speech. ...
  • Developmental dysarthria.

What are the types of articulators phonetics? ›

The main articulators are the tongue, the upper lip, the lower lip, the upper teeth, the upper gum ridge (alveolar ridge), the hard palate, the velum (soft palate), the uvula (free-hanging end of the soft palate), the pharyngeal wall, and the glottis (space between the vocal cords).

What are the three types of phonetics explain with examples? ›

Phonetics is divided into three types according to the production (articulatory), transmission (acoustic) and perception (auditive) of sounds. Three categories of sounds must be recognised at the outset: phones (human sounds), phonemes (units which distinguish meaning in a language), allophones (non-distinctive units).

What are the 44 phoneme sounds? ›

In English, there are 44 phonemes, or word sounds that make up the language. They're divided into 19 consonants, 7 digraphs, 5 'r-controlled' sounds, 5 long vowels, 5 short vowels, 2 'oo' sounds, 2 diphthongs.

What is phonemes give 5 example about it? ›

A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word that makes a difference in its pronunciation, as well as its meaning, from another word. For instance, the /s/ in 'soar' distinguishes it from /r/ in 'roar', as it becomes different from 'soar' in pronunciation as well as meaning.

Which is the best example of a phoneme? ›

A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in speech. When we teach reading we teach children which letters represent those sounds. For example – the word 'hat' has 3 phonemes – 'h' 'a' and 't'.

How many manner and places of articulation are there in English? ›

There are six different ways, or manners of articulation, that we will discuss in this lesson.

What is the place and manner of articulation for the sound b? ›

If we obstruct our vocal tract at the lips, like for the sounds [b] and [p], the place of articulation is bilabial. The consonants [f] and [v] are made with the top teeth on the bottom lip, so these are called labiodental sounds.

What is meant by voicing? ›

Voice or voicing is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants). Speech sounds can be described as either voiceless (otherwise known as unvoiced) or voiced. Voiced.

Videos

1. [Introduction to Linguistics] Consonants: Place of Articulation, Manner of Articulation, Voicing
(TrevTutor)
2. Places and Manners of Articulation
(The Ling Space)
3. Manner of Articulation | Phonetics | The Study of Language | ENGLISH
(Umair Linguistics)
4. Manner of Articulation l Description of Consonant Sounds l Oxbridge English l
(Oxbridge English)
5. Manners of Articulation in English consonants/Linguistics/Phonetics/Part 1
(UV educational centre)
6. Manner of articulation
(Dr. Ghanim Al_Sieedy)
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