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History of Neuro Linguistic Programming Abstract This paper covers the history and development of Neuro Linguistic Programming in the field of psychology covering its techniques and its growth from behavioral modeling and the influences of Gestalt psychologists Fritz Perls; Virginia Satir, and Milton Erikson.
Richard Bandler and John Grinder are considered the fathers of Neuro Linguistic Programming and this paper covers the skills they developed and their discovery of the ways to identify the representational systems someone uses even when that person is not talking, by recognizing eye movements that reveal that the person is making pictures, hearing sounds, or sensing feelings.
NLP can be used in psychotherapy but also in many other fields such as management, sales, marketing, public relations, education, therapy, the military and police, sport, and personal development.
History of Neuro Linguistic Programming Neuro-linguistic Programming (NLP) was first developed in the U. S. in the early 1970’s from studying the thinking and behavioral skills used by particularly effective and successful people. It is the way of organizing and understanding the structure of subjective experience (Bandler ; Grinder 1975). Developed by a mathematician; Richard Bandler and a linguist John Grinder, NLP has been clinically demonstrated as a useful technology for generating change.
Research Papers In Neuro Linguistic Programming
Together they studied the three most successful therapists at the time to uncover the structure behind their work.
The three where the founder of Gestalt therapy, Fritz Perls; Virginia Satir, Mother of Family therapy and Milton Erikson, the pre-eminent hypnotherapist of the modern era (Tan REV) NLP grew out of the ‘behavioural modelling’ activity of Grinder and Bandler in studying Virginia Satir, Fritz Perls, and Milton H Erickson. Richard Bandler (1949- ) enrolled as a psychology student in the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1970. John Grinder, (1940- ) was an associate rofessor of linguistics. Bandler joined the group of Grinder-followers and they became friends. Soon they were using Grinder’s linguistics to pursue Bandler’s interest in the work and the success-rate of Virginia Satir (mother of Family Therapy) and Fritz Perls (founder of Gestalt Therapy). They analysed writings and tape-recordings to discover what accounted for the successful results achieved by Satir and Perls. Later, through a friend of Bandler’s, they got to know and became admirers of Gregory Bateson who, in turn, introduced them to the work of Milton Erickson.
Using their studies Bandler and Grinder where able to develop skills to of modeling that allowed them to identify the structural elements of another individual’s behavior and teach that behavior to a third person (Dilts, Grinder, Bandler, Cameron Bandler & Delozier 1980). Bandler and Grinder noticed that the words people use to express themselves are a literal description of their mental experiences and at the basic level of understanding, people input, process internally, and output information using one or more of the five sensory channels; visual, auditory, kinesthetic, smell and taste.
The first three are the most important in day to day information processing (Andreas & Andreas 1982). As they began to come up with ideas, insights, and techniques they tried them out on friends (including Robert Dilts, Judith DeLozier, Leslie Cameron Bandler, and David Gordon) who soon joined them in developing and extending the work. The enthusiastic and highly creative group grew and this was how Neuro Linguistic Programming was developed. NLP has acquired a reputation for enabling people to become mind readers; this is partly because of the work of Grinder and Bandler.
They discovered that there are ways to identify the representational systems someone uses even when that person is not talking, by recognizing eye movements that reveal that the person is making pictures, hearing sounds, or sensing feelings. And out of this search came many of the methods that are still part of good Practitioner and Master Practitioner Trainings such as anchoring, sensory acuity and calibration, reframing, representational systems, and the two Language Models – as well as many of the personal change techniques such as the New Behavioural Generator and Change Personal
History. Using eye movements as a method of determining the preferred representational system Falzett (1981) found that a male and female interviewer where rated as more trustworthy by subjects when predicated systems where matched by the interviewer than when the interviewer used mismatching predicates in responding to a subjects verbalizations. The NLP model states that because of a specific neural wiring, humans move their eyes in predictable patterns when they are accessing representational strategies.
Breathing rate can also be used, high in the chest with short choppy breaths is a visual access, low in the stomach with deep breaths in kinesthetic access and even breathing in the middle of the chest indicates auditory access. Other behavioral aspects are the positioning of the shoulders, posture shifts, skin color changes, heart rate and also body temperature changes. (Schaefer, Beausay & Pursley 1983). NLP states that these accessing cues are the process where an individual modulates their neurology to access various representational that are necessary when trying to make sense out of their environment.
During therapy, NLP is process orientated; it is directed at the production of therapeutic change by affecting formal strategies that a person constantly employs. Expanding and challenging theses strategies is performed with the use of anchors. An anchor is a specific word which represents behaviors classically conditioned to evoke a specific response. This response can be cognitive or behavioral. An anchor does not need to be to be reinforced with its response and it does not need to be conditioned over a period of time. Language is a common anchoring system.
For example, the word dog will be an auditory anchor to an image of four legged animal that barks, an effective anchor with little cognitive effort. The smell of a hospital or a family member screaming in anger is examples of anchors that have been unintentionally installed and they operate out of an individual’s awareness and direct control. Neuro Linguistic Programming operates to install new anchors which work just as well as these unintentional anchors and work toward evoking a response that increases the behavioral flexibility of a person and it is through these anchors that changes can be made in the strategies of thought.
Using NLP a therapist can establish a map of one’s cognitive representation of the world and place anchors that be established in a clients strategies that provoke responses that differ from those expected using their original strategy. It is now used internationally used by millions of people throughout the world in such diverse fields as management, sales, marketing, public relations, education, therapy, the military and police, sport, and personal development. (Schaefer, Beausay & Pursley 1983). Grinder and Bandler proposed certain assumptions in their model of communications, NLP.
They assumed that people, (a) organize experiences into representational systems reflecting one or more sensory modes, (visual, auditory and kinesthetic); (b) vary in tendencies to encode experiences primarily in one sensory mode or another; (c) express such individual differences through choice of verbal predicates and through eyes movements; (d) communicate best with others who use the same representational or predicate systems. (Fromme & Daniell 1984) The sensory mode utilized and the sequences of modality utilizations are critical to the performance of any given task.
A person who is skilled at a certain task will have a radically different processing sequence from someone who performs poorly at the same task. The systems are sensory specific, grounded in a definable sensory system that provides the material for the experience. A person who uses a visual preferred representational system (PRS) will primarily attend to images, facial expressions and colors. Similarly, an auditory PRS may focus on sounds, tones, and volume. The kinesthetic PRS will focus on bodily sensations such as proprioceptive information, tactile experience, and the experience of affect. Hossack,MClinPSychol&Standidge1993) References Andreas, C, & Andreas, S. (1982). Neuro-Linguistic Programming: A new technology for training. Performance & Instruction, 21(5), 37-39. http://search. ebscohost. com, doi:10. 1002/pfi. 4170210519 Bandler, R & Grinder, J (1975) Patterns of the Hypnotic techniques of Milton H Erickson MD, Vol 1 Cupertino, CA Meta Publications Dilts, R, Grinder, J, Bandler, R, Cameron-Bandler, L & DeLozier, J (1980) Neuro Linguistic Programming, Vol 1 Cupertino, CA: Meta Publications Einspruch, E. , & Forman, B. (1988).
Neuro-linguistic programming in the treatment of phobias. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 6(1), 91-100. http://search. ebscohost. com Fromme, D. , & Daniell, J. (1984). Neuro-linguistic programming examined: Imagery, sensory mode, and communication. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31(3), 387-390. http://search. ebscohost. com, doi:10. 1037/0022-0167. 31. 3. 387 Gumm, W. , Walker, M. , & Day, H. (1982). Neuro-linguistics programming: Method or myth? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 29(3), 327-330. http://search. ebscohost. com, doi:10. 1037/0022-0167. 29. . 327 Hossack, Alex, MClinPsychol, & Standidge, Karen. (1993). Using an imaginary scrapbook for neuro-linguistic programming in the aftermath of a clinical depression: A case history. The Gerontologist, 33(2), 265. Retrieved October 7, 2009, from ProQuest Psychology Journals. (Document ID: 1649306). Helm, D (2003). Neuro Linguistic Programming: Deciphering the truth in the criminal mind. Education, 124(2), 257-260. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from Research Library. (Document ID: 532771451). Krugman, M. , Kirsch, I. , Wickless, C. , Milling, L. , Golicz, H. & Toth, A. (1985). Neuro-linguistic programming treatment for anxiety: Magic or myth? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(4), 526-530. http://search. ebscohost. com, doi:10. 1037/0022-006X. 53. 4. 526 Schaefer, D. , Beausay, W. , & Pursley, C. (1983). Neuro-linguistic programming: Introduction, assessment, and critique. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 2(3), 2-13. Walter, J & Bayat, A. (2003). Neuro-linguistic programming: The keys to success. Student MJ, 11, 252. Retrieved October 5, 2009, from Research Library. (Document ID: 373186041).
Neuro-linguistic programming was developed in the 1970s at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Its primary founders are John Grinder, a linguist, and Richard Bandler, an information scientist and mathematician.What is Neuro Linguistic Programming in simple words? ›
Neuro-linguistic programming is a way of changing someone's thoughts and behaviors to help achieve desired outcomes for them. The popularity of neuro-linguistic programming or NLP has become widespread since it started in the 1970s.Why is Neuro Linguistic Programming Important? ›
Neuro-Linguistic Programming, or NLP, provides practical ways in which you can change the way that you think, view past events, and approach your life. Neuro-Linguistic Programming shows you how to take control of your mind, and therefore your life.What is Neuro Linguistic Programming in teaching? ›
Neuro-linguistic programming is a way to change a person's thoughts and habits to be successful through perception, behavior, and communication techniques. It is a pseudoscientific approach based on neural connections, specifically, on how they process language.What is the history of NLP? ›
NLP - overview. The field of natural language processing began in the 1940s, after World War II. At this time, people recognized the importance of translation from one language to another and hoped to create a machine that could do this sort of translation automatically.How did NLP first begin? ›
It is generally agreed that NLP started in the early 1970's in Santa Cruz, California, when Richard Bandler, a 20-year-old psychology student at U.C. Santa Cruz, met and became friends with Dr. John Grinder, who was in his late 20's and an associate professor of linguistics at the college.Why it is called Neuro Linguistic Programming? ›
NLP's creators claim there is a connection between neurological processes (neuro-), language (linguistic) and behavioral patterns learned through experience (programming), and that these can be changed to achieve specific goals in life.What is an example of Neuro Linguistic Programming? ›
Examples of NLP meta-programs include the preference for overview or detail, the preference for where to place one's attention during conversation, habitual linguistic patterns and body language, and so on. Related concepts in other disciplines are known as cognitive styles or thinking styles.What are the key elements in a strategy NLP? ›
- Visual. External. Internal. Constructed. Remembered.
- Auditory. External. Internal. Constructed. Remembered.
- Auditory Digital.
- Kinesthetic. External. Internal. Constructed. Remembered. Proprioceptive. ...
- Olfactory. External. Internal. Constructed. Remembered.
- Gustatory. External. Internal. Constructed. Remembered.
- Imagery training. Imagery training, sometimes called mental rehearsal, is one of the classic neuro-linguistic programming techniques based on visualization. ...
- NLP swish. When you're ready for more advanced NLP techniques, use the NLP swish. ...
- Modeling. ...
- Mirroring. ...
Based on their own investigations of 90 articles that they found on the topic of NLP, they concluded: “In summary, there are no empirical studies that offer evidence for the effectiveness of coaching based solely on NLP tools and techniques.”How many NLP techniques are there? ›
Natural Language Processing (NLP): 7 Key Techniques.What is the role of neurolinguistics in teaching learning? ›
Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP), with high potential for English teaching and learning, is regarded as a supplementary technique which helps the teachers to develop outstanding skills like critical thinking, self-efficacy, and rapport which are necessary to bring on success and achievement to the education and to ...Who is the father of NLP? ›
Richard Wayne Bandler (born 1950) is an American consultant in the field of self-help. With John Grinder, he founded the neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) approach to psychotherapy in the 1970s.What was the first NLP model? ›
The first neural language model, a feed-forward neural network was proposed in 2001 by Bengio et al. , shown in Figure 1 below. This model takes as input vector representations of the n previous words, which are looked up in a table C . Nowadays, such vectors are known as word embeddings.Who is the father of natural language processing? ›
In 1957, Noam Chomsky's Syntactic Structures revolutionized Linguistics with 'universal grammar', a rule based system of syntactic structures. The Georgetown experiment in 1954 involved fully automatic translation of more than sixty Russian sentences into English.What are the 5 steps in NLP? ›
The five phases of NLP involve lexical (structure) analysis, parsing, semantic analysis, discourse integration, and pragmatic analysis.What are the applications of NLP? ›
- Email filters. Email filters are one of the most basic and initial applications of NLP online. ...
- Smart assistants. ...
- Search results. ...
- Predictive text. ...
- Language translation. ...
- Digital phone calls. ...
- Data analysis. ...
- Text analytics.
“Doing NLP on yourself is like playing tennis alone. You can do it, but it's very slow.” The Problem Is That You Can't Be In Two Places At Once. You can't be in your head, having the feelings that create the state you want to work with, and at the same time be outside of yourself, analyzing what might be going on.What are strategies in NLP? ›
In NLP a strategy is a series and sequence of internal and external representations which consistently produces the same specific result. Strategies can also be said to be like the 'programs' we use to run our neuro-linguistic 'computer', and the results we get are like the outputs of those programs.
- Choose something to change.
- Find the Trigger and Write the Steps Down.
- Check the Strategy.
By identifying the trigger (the IR that sets off the sequence) we can change it using NLP Submodality exercises like the Swish pattern and therefore change the results that we and others get. If we change the trigger then we change the sequence of IRs that follow and we get different behaviour.
4 Main Pillars of NLP: Relationship, Knowing What You Want, Sensory Acuity, Behavioral Flexibility (Neuro Linguistic Programming) Relationship, and specifically that quality relationship of mutual trust and responsiveness known as rapport.Is NLP worth learning? ›
Yes – if you're curious about exploring communication and influence, and genuinely want to improve your life, and if you are prepared to put in the work to do so. NLP is particularly effective if you want to move forward to the next stage of your life journey.Is Neuro Linguistic Programming valid? ›
Neurolinguistic programming is a pseudoscience, most (if not all) its claims regarding brain-computer analogies and brain programming are not sustained by empirical evidence and contradict the last 30 years of neuroscience research.Is NLP manipulated? ›
NLP is absolutely manipulative. If you look up the definition of the word manipulation in the dictionary it says: “ influencing or attempting to influence the behavior or emotions of others for one's own purposes.Is NLP a pyramid scheme? ›
It's run like a pyramid scheme or network marketing programme and resembles very strongly a religious cult. It's a money-making scam that uses sales psychology.Who is the father of NLP? ›
Richard Wayne Bandler (born 1950) is an American consultant in the field of self-help. With John Grinder, he founded the neuro-linguistic programming (NLP) approach to psychotherapy in the 1970s.What is the difference between CBT and NLP? ›
Neuro linguistic Programming (NLP), is the practice of understanding how people organize their thinking and language and how this affects behaviour. While CBT is focused managing problems by changing how we think and behave.Is NLP a hypnosis? ›
NLP, on the other hand, has no formal induction. It doesn't use the same tools and techniques as hypnosis, because both your conscious mind and unconscious mind are involved. So when NLP was discovered, the early pioneers looked at hypnosis and modeled it. But NLP alone is not necessarily hypnosis.