8 Active Learning Strategies and Examples [+ Downloadable List] (2023)

As a teacher, one of your biggest challenges is to plan lessons that inspire your students to stay actively involved in the learning process.

But you’ve probably noticed that traditional, teacher-centered learning plans aren’t always conducive to achieving that inspiration.

That’s where active learning strategies come into play. You can use them to empower, engage, andstimulate a classroom by putting students at the center of the learning process.

Get inspired by these8strategies that will helpstudents talk more openly, think more creatively and -- ultimately -- become moreengaged in the process of learning.

This article is accompanied by adownloadable listof active learning strategiesto keep at your desk for quick reference.

Active Learning Strategies

1.Reciprocal questioning

Use reciprocal questioningto encourage an open dialogue in which students take on the role of the teacher and create their own questions about a topic, reading section, or lesson.

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After covering a topic of your choice in class-- or after assigning a reading selection -- divide the class into pairs or small groups and have students come up with a few questions for discussion with the rest of the class. To facilitate the process, you can provide students with “question stems,” which provide a foundation for a question but still require students to think critically about a lesson, text, or other section of material by completing the query. Consider the examples below.

Comprehension Question Stems

Describexin your own words. What doesymean? Why iszimportant? How couldxbe used toy?

Connector Question Stems

Explain howxand whyz.In what ways arexandysimilar? In what ways arexandydifferent? How doesxtie in with that we learned before?

Use these question stems to anchor and explore concepts in course material, helping students investigate a range of new topics and points of view associated with your lesson.

Much like student-generated test questions -- a type of of experiential learning activity -- reciprocal questioning involves students in the learning process to help build their comprehension of course material.

Reciprocal questioning can be particularly useful when:

  • Preparing for tests or exams
  • Introducing a new topic or section of course content
  • Discussing reading or writing materials in greater detail

2.Three step interviews

A cooperative learning strategy, thethree step interviewencourages students to develop active listening skills by quizzing one another, sharing their thoughts, and taking notes.

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To use the three step interview process, divide students into groups of three, and assign three roles: interviewer, interviewee, and notetaker.

After also assigning a theme or topic of discussion, have students participate in a five to 10 minute interview to discuss what they found to be the key information relating to the topic.

After each interview, have students rotate roles. Depending on factors including the grade level of your students and their experience with the strategy, you may adjust the length of the time for each interview.

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(Video) Teaching Strategies we are Using Inside the Classroom

One interpretation of the three-step interview process. Feel free to experiment with the duration and number of students involved in these steps. Image courtesy:Kagan Publishing

Before using the strategy, you may find it useful to have students explore the types of questions reporters ask in interviews and at what point in an interview they ask them. You may also want to provide recording sheets to use when they are assigned the “reporter” role.

The three-step interview confers benefits including:

  • Helpingstudents learn and apply different questioning strategies
  • Strengtheningstudents’ connection with course material in a creative and engaging way
  • Producinga sense of accountability, with students working together to complete a task and grasp a lesson

3. The pause procedure

Use the pause procedure to intersperse strategic pauses into your class lectures and enhance student understanding of teaching materials.

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To use the pause procedure, arrange for pauses of two to three minutes between every 10 to 15 minutes of lecture time.

During these brief breaks, encourage students to discuss or rework their notes in pairs to clarify key points covered, raise questions, and solve problems posed by the instructor.

Alternatively, students can work together to write a paragraph that connects or highlights key ideas set out in their partner’s notes.

A 2014 study concluded that breaking a lecture into brief pauses can increase student attention and learning outcomes. The pause procedure, the study determined, is “a good active learning strategy which helps students review their notes, reflect on them, discuss and explain the key ideas with their partners.”

The use of the pause procedure involves a minimal amount of extra time, but can confer significant benefits in comparison to lectures that continue without breaks.

4. The muddiest point technique

The muddiest point technique involves asking students to write notes on the most unclear or most confusing element of a given homework assignment, lecture, or class discussion.

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The Muddiest Point: Sample PhrasingWhat have you found to be the muddiest point so far in this assignment? What topic do you find to be the least clear?

Asking students to write down what they find to be the least clear is a powerful exercise because it compels them to grade or rate their own knowledge of a topic.

In short, the exercise helps students reflect on the lesson and identify concepts needing further examination or study.

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Example of a "muddiest point" handout to issue to students. Image source: TeachersPayTeachers.

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From your perspective, the activity can serve as an insightful source of feedback.

For example, if more than a quarter of the class mentions the same “muddiest point,” you may wish to schedule a further time to discuss that topic, or create a new lesson plan or assignment to tackle it.

5. The devil's advocate approach

The devil's advocate approach asks one or more students to take the opposing side of a predominant argument or point of view being discussed during a lesson.

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Once you have completed an assignment or lesson plan, select a topic that is suitable for discussion and debate. The topic should serve as an appropriate subject for providing arguments from both sides.

The activity is flexible and should be tailored to suit your students' grade level. In its simplest form, divide the class into two sections and coordinate a class-wide debate based on a selected topic. Alternatively, you may have students annotate reading texts and respond to contentions by creating counterarguments. Then, have students debate the proposals discussed during a mock town hall meeting.

While this approach can be used across a number of grade levels and subjects, consider this list of thematic claims used as primers for a devil’s advocate activity in a secondary ELA class.

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Image source: Bespoke Classroom.

This approach can help cultivate active learning in the classroom by encouraging students to:

  • Think more critically, challenging participants to expand their understanding of the perspectives surrounding an issue and to view it through a different lens
  • Become more engaged,fostering involvement by drawing out opinions to explore the complexity of an issue being studied
  • Produce a deeper understandingof topics or issues, using rigorous analysis to collectively clarify, probe, and pose alternatives to problems being discussed

According to a study published in the Journal of Theory, Research and Action in Urban Education, the devil’s advocate approach can help students become “more familiar with a...topic and its multifaceted viewpoints.” The same study concludes that a classroom using this strategy can:

“provide students with multiple perspectives, and challenge students with tough questions. In such a classroom, students will become more engaged and students’ critical thinking and writing skills will be enriched.”

6. Peer teaching activities

A flexible and multi-faceted approach to active learning, peer instruction encompasses a range of scenarios where students instruct skills or explain concepts to classmates.

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Some popular options include:

  • Reading buddies—A cooperative learning strategy that pairs two students who work together to read an assigned text.
  • Cross-age peer tutoring—A peer learning strategy involving students in different grades, wherein which one student instructs another on the material in which the first student is advanced and the second student is a novice.
  • Role play— A group of students is split into smaller groups and given a specific task to complete, like in small group work. However, in addition to working on a specific task, the members of each group are asked to play a certain “role”. Unlike in traditional role-play, all members of one group play the same role, not individually assigned roles.

Peer teaching activities help boost vital skills and behaviors including student interaction, accountability, group processing.

7. Game-based learning platforms

Game-based learning platforms and depth anddifferentiation to the educational process and allowstudentstowork with their instructors to achieve theirlearning objectives.

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Eric Sheninger, a principal, author, and Senior Fellow at the International Center for Leadership in Education (ICLE), writes passionately about the use of technology as an active learning tool. In his article "Shifting From Passive to Active Learning," he writes:

It is really about how students use devices to create artifacts of learning that demonstrate conceptual mastery through relevant application and evaluation...Give kids challenging problems to solve that have more than one right answer and let them use technology to show thatthey understand. This is the epitome of active learning...

Math games and websites are at the forefront of delivering active learning through technology. One example is Prodigy, a platform that constantlyadjusts questions to tackle student trouble spots and delivers math problems with words, charts pictures,andnumbers. Better yet, educational content is free to access and aligned with curricula for grades 1 to 8 teachers.

Create and sign into your free teacher account.

8.Rotating chair group discussions

Rotating chair group discussionsencouragestudents to actively listen to selected speakers who follow a pattern of guiding class discussion and summarizing previous points. Students lead and stimulate class discussion as they “rotate”roles, repeatedlyselecting thefollowing speaker.

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To use this strategy effectively, ensure that students adhere to the following pattern:

  • When a student wishes to participate, they must raise their hand
  • The student who is speakingcalls on the next speaker,ideally someone who has not yet contributed
  • The student who has been called upon briefly summarizes what the previous student said before developing the idea further

This process can be repeated across a variety of topics, with your guidance to stay on track and help stuck students.

The benefits of rotating chair group discussions are not only limited to the speakers. Knowing that they may be called upon to summarize the previous topic, all students are engaged in attentive listening, frequently jotting down notes and ideas to stay on track in the spaces between speaking.

Moreover, students are put into a scenario where they learn from their colleagues’ ideas, sparking new considerations of material in an active and engaging way.

This strategy is rewarding for students because it encourages powerful and direct engagement with course material.

The Teacher’s Role in the Active Learning Classroom

While active learning places an emphasis on the student’s role in the learning experience, there is no doubt that the success of any active learning strategy starts with the thought and planning of a conscientious instructor.

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"Overall," a 2011 study found, "teachers play an influential role in increasing students' situational interest in the active-learning classroom," while factors like a teacher's social connection with students and subject matter expertise "significantly influence the level of students' situational interest in the active learning classroom."

And, critically, the benefits of active learning go both ways, helping teachers as well as students.

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As active learning advocate James Ballencia writes,

With the goal of teaching mindful learners who actively pursue knowledge, teachers become more actively engaged in how they teach the curriculum and how they develop each student's learning potential. They mix and match a variety of ... tactics to ensure that students not only learn more, better, and faster -- they also learn smarter.

As many of the techniques above are open-ended, the active learning strategies underpinning them may differentiate for different types of learners. Be sure to consider how you candifferentiate instructionwhile still enjoying the benefits of these active learning strategies.

Active Learning Techniques: Key Questions

To help the success of these strategies, put yourself in your students’ position and imagine how they might experience it. This will help you get a feel for the lesson.

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When applying any of these strategies for your course, be sure to ask yourself:

  • Will this be engaging and exciting for my students?
  • Can this activity deployformative assessment strategies?
  • Is the student placed at the center of this learning strategy?
  • Will this encourage my students todiscuss a topic with one another?
  • Am I giving students the opportunity to reflect on the learning process?
  • Is this activity getting my students to think deeply and critically about a topic or lesson or is it simply a comprehension exercise?

Making Space for Active Learning Strategies

While all of the active learning strategies outlined above can be deployed in traditional, lecture-oriented classrooms, the physical arrangement of your room and the number of students in the class can make some of them difficult to perform easily.

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While a flexible seating classroom arrangement may ease this challenge, such a solution is not always possible. Plan these exercises with the limitations of your physical space carefully, being mindful of the environmental constraints posed by the unique arrangements of some of the strategies above.

Final Thoughts on Active Learning Strategies

Active learning plainly puts the focus on the learner: what the learner does, what the learner thinks, and how the learner behaves.

But, crucially, active learning doesn't simply happen with a few simple instructions: it occurs in the classroom where the teacher is committed to a learning environment that makes active learning possible.

Ultimately, these active learning strategies will help build understanding rather than memorization of facts, giving students the confidence to apply learning to different problems and contexts and achieve greater autonomy over their learning.

And, after all, that’s exactly makes active learning “active”: putting students at the center of the learning process as they take the initiative to learn.

Downloadable List of the8Active LearningStrategies

Click hereto download the list ofstrategiesto print and keep at your desk.

Create or log in to your teacher account on Prodigy-- a game-based learning platform that assesses student progress and performance as they play. Aligned with a growing list of curricula across the world, over800,000 teachersand30 million students have signed up to Prodigy Math Game.


What is active learning with examples? ›

Examples of Active Learning

To be sure, there are many examples of classroom tasks that might be classified as “active learning.” Some of the most common examples include think-pair-share exercises, jigsaw discussions, and even simply pausing for clarification during a lecture.

What are the 9 strategies for effective online teaching? ›

Strategies for Teaching Online
  • Writing your syllabus. ...
  • Working with Teaching Assistants. ...
  • Creating inclusive and equitable online learning environments. ...
  • Engaging discussions online. ...
  • Promote student well-being. ...
  • Facilitating effective online meetings. ...
  • Other resources.

What are the 7 types of learning PDF? ›

The 7 styles of the theory are:
  • visual.
  • kinaesthetic.
  • aural.
  • social.
  • solitary.
  • verbal.
  • logical.
1 Jul 2021

Which of the following are active learning strategies? ›

Active learning methods ask students to engage in their learning by thinking, discussing, investigating, and creating. In class, students practice skills, solve problems, struggle with complex questions, make decisions, propose solutions, and explain ideas in their own words through writing and discussion.

What are the different types of active learning? ›

Examples of active learning activities include brainstorming, discussing, teaching, journaling, group work, focused listening, formulating questions, notetaking, annotating, and roleplaying. Lecturing is not an active learning technique!

What are the teaching strategies in online learning? ›

Strategies for Teaching Online: How to Build Rapport and Community with Students
  • Incorporate purposeful free time.
  • Have a regular show and tell.
  • Utilize a class message board.
  • EdTech Digital Promise Framework.
  • Stay communicative:
  • Continuously adapt your classroom:
  • Keep activities interesting with students:
1 Mar 2022

What are learning strategies courses? ›

Learning strategy instruction focuses on strategies that facilitate the active learning process by teaching students how to learn and how to use what they have learned to solve problems and be successful.

What are 5 learning strategies? ›

  • The 5 Families – Teaching Strategies. Teaching Strategies are used to create learning environments and to assist students in reaching predetermined learning outcomes. ...
  • Experiential Learning. ...
  • Direct Instruction. ...
  • Indirect Instruction. ...
  • Interactive Instruction. ...
  • Independent Study.

What are the six learning strategies? ›

Specifically, six key learning strategies from cognitive research can be applied to education: spaced practice, interleaving, elaborative interrogation, concrete examples, dual coding, and retrieval practice.

Why are active learning strategies important? ›

Active learning encourages success

Encouraging active learning helps students to achieve higher grades, based on their enhanced skills and understanding. Because active learning encourages students to take a central role in their own learning, it prepares them better for both higher education and for the workplace.

Who made the 8 learning styles? ›

According to Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, everybody has different types of learning styles to help them comprehend new information. There are 8 learning styles in total, ranging from visual to auditory and more.

What are the 12 learning styles? ›

Understanding the 12 Ways of Learning:

They include visual, auditory, tactile, kinesthetic, sequential, simultaneous, reflective/logical, verbal, interactive, direct experience, indirect experience, and rhythmic/melodic.

What are the 7 types of learning? ›

The Seven Learning Styles – How do you learn?
  • Visual (Spatial)
  • Aural (Auditory-Musical)
  • Verbal (Linguistic)
  • Physical (Kinesthetic)
  • Logical (Mathematical)
  • Social (Interpersonal)
  • Solitary (Intrapersonal)
4 Sept 2013

Who wrote 7 styles of learning? ›

The 7 Learning Styles. Theorist Neil Fleming coined VARK as a model for learning. VARK stands for: visual, auditory, reading/writing preference, and kinesthetic.

Who developed 7 learning styles? ›

Howard Gardner of Harvard has identified seven distinct intelligences. This theory has emerged from recent cognitive research and "documents the extent to which students possess different kinds of minds and therefore learn, remember, perform, and understand in different ways," according to Gardner (1991).

What are the 4 types of learning styles PDF? ›

There are 4 predominant learning styles: Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, and Kinaesthetic.

What are 3 examples of learning? ›

Everyone processes and learns new information in different ways. There are three main cognitive learning styles: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic.

Which of the following is the most effective active learning strategy? ›

The pause procedure, the study determined, is “a good active learning strategy which helps students review their notes, reflect on them, discuss and explain the key ideas with their partners.” The use of the pause procedure involves a minimal amount of extra time, but can confer significant benefits in comparison to ...

What are 3 examples of effective teaching strategies for a student with a learning disability? ›

  • Allow student to use a word processor with a spelling checker.
  • Grade written assignments for ideas only or provide two grades: one for content and one for technical skills.
  • Provide advance notice of written assignments. ...
  • Encourage student to use the Writing Lab and to get tutoring.

What are the 4 active learning interactions in online learning? ›

When students are observing, doing, communicating, and reflecting, they are actively working with concepts and people. We describe these activities as interactions.

What is meant by active learning PDF? ›

Active Learning. Active learning is generally defined as any instructional method that engages students in the learning process. In short, active learning requires students to do meaningful learning activities and think about what they are doing.

What is active learning method? ›

Active learning is an approach to instruction that involves actively engaging students with the course material through discussions, problem solving, case studies, role plays and other methods.

What is an active learning classroom? ›

Active learning classrooms (ALCs) are spaces configured to maximize active, collaborative learning and multimodal teaching, in contrast with traditional lecture-style classrooms.

What is advanced active learning method? ›

What is it? Advanced active learning formats are designed to engage a student's critical thinking skills and apply previous and new knowledge to real-life scenarios.

How do you promote active learning in the classroom? ›

Give learners clear lesson aims and refer to them at each stage
  1. keep track of the lesson stages.
  2. clearly see the connection between what they are doing in class and what they are supposed to learn.
  3. know exactly what is expected of them, reducing anxiety.
  4. self-monitor their progress.
30 Oct 2017

What are the 10 advantages of online learning? ›

Advantages of Online Learning
  • Flexibility. ...
  • Reduced Costs. ...
  • More Free Time. ...
  • Increased Course Variety. ...
  • Career Advancement Opportunities. ...
  • Increased Collaboration. ...
  • Personalized Education. ...
  • Enhanced Time Management Skills.

What kind of strategies can be used for learning support students? ›

Maintain and encourage a positive outlook; focus on the good. Provide opportunities for small successes and then celebrate them. Give assignments/tasks in small, manageable chunks. Acknowledge the students' feelings and their lived experiences; incorporate student interests/experiences into lessons.

Which strategies lead to student success? ›

Strategies for Successful Students
  • Attending class regularly is essential! ...
  • Always be prepared for class. ...
  • Don't be afraid to ask questions! ...
  • Practice time management! ...
  • Always save your draft in multiple places. ...
  • Understand the importance of the syllabus, and refer back to it throughout the semester.

What are examples of active participation? ›

Some examples of how active participation may look in health and social care includes: Encouraging an individual to be part of the planning of their care and support needs. Helping a keen reader to “read” again with the use of audiobooks if their eyesight has hindered their ability.

What strategies should the teacher use to make the students participate in class? ›

Teaching strategies to ensure student engagement
  • Begin the lesson with an interesting fact. ...
  • Exude enthusiasm and engagement. ...
  • Encourage connections that are meaningful and relevant. ...
  • Plan for short attention spans. ...
  • Address different learning styles and multiple intelligences. ...
  • Converse with students — don't talk at them.
11 Jul 2019

What are the different teaching strategies in the new normal? ›

Student-focused teaching strategies
  • Gamification. Classroom gamification is an effective way to take a child's love for play and turn it into a love of learning. ...
  • Convergent and divergent thinking. ...
  • Project-based learning. ...
  • Experiential learning. ...
  • Peer teaching. ...
  • Inquiry-based learning. ...
  • Problem-based learning. ...
  • Reciprocal teaching.
7 Jun 2022

How many learning methods are there? ›

According to the VARK system, there are four types of learning styles—visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and reading/writing. We hope this article helped you understand in which category you fall!

What is cognitive learning strategies? ›

Cognitive learning strategies are strategies that improve a learner's ability to process information more deeply, transfer and apply information to new situations, and result in enhanced and better-retained learning.

What is the most effective teaching strategy? ›

The single most impactful teaching strategy when used correctly, feedback (whether from the teacher or another source e.g. peer marking) needs to be specific, encouraging and actionable – pupils need to be able to understand where they could improve, and how.

What are strategies of teaching? ›

Strategies for Teaching
  • Active Learning. ...
  • Using the Technology Enhanced Active Learning (TEAL) Classroom for Courses that Emphasize Problem-Solving. ...
  • Effective Class Discussions. ...
  • Case-Based Learning. ...
  • Digital Learning. ...
  • Effective Lecturing. ...
  • Team-Based Learning. ...
  • Flipped Classroom.

What are the 4 types of teaching methods? ›

These are teacher-centred methods, learner-centred methods, content-focused methods and interactive/participative methods.

What are the 5 teaching approaches? ›

The five major approaches are Constructivist, Collaborative, Integrative, Reflective and Inquiry Based Learning ( 2C-2I-1R ).

What is active learning method? ›

Active learning is an approach to instruction that involves actively engaging students with the course material through discussions, problem solving, case studies, role plays and other methods.

What are the 5 strategies for successful large class handling? ›

With the right teaching strategies, you can succeed even when a class is large.
  • Learn All of the Names. ...
  • Use a Seating Chart. ...
  • Make Clear Rules and Stick to Them. ...
  • Be Active. ...
  • Plan … a Lot. ...
  • Have an Escape Plan. ...
  • Keep Resources Accessible. ...
  • Divide Students Into Teams.

What are the 9 teaching strategies? ›

9 Teaching Strategies That Help Students Learn Effectively
  • Inquiry-Based Model.
  • Storyboarding.
  • Peer Tutoring and Assessment.
  • Brainstorming.
  • Reflections.
  • Student-Led Classes.
  • Visual Aids.
  • Interdisciplinary Approach.
22 Dec 2020

What is a teaching strategy PDF? ›

Teaching strategy is a generalized plan for a lesson which includes structure, instructional objectives and an outline of planned tactics, necessary to implement the. strategies (Stone and Morris, in Issac, 2010). Furthermore, Issac (2010) explains that teaching.

How can strategies help students in the classroom? ›

Strategies help students begin to understand the process of learning. Strategies help students to bypass their areas of weakness and to perform at the level at which they are capable. Strategies promote flexible thinking and teach students the importance of shifting their approaches to different tasks.

What are the six methods of teaching? ›

6 effective teaching methods and how to use them
  • Online learning. ...
  • Experiential learning. ...
  • Differentiation. ...
  • Blended learning. ...
  • Game-based learning. ...
  • Student-centred learning.
27 Oct 2021

How many learning methods are there? ›

According to the VARK system, there are four types of learning styles—visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and reading/writing. We hope this article helped you understand in which category you fall!

What are 2 core teaching strategies? ›

With that said, here are a few essential core teaching strategies that will help make you a great teacher.
  • Behavior Management. Getty/Banksphotos. ...
  • Student Motivation. ...
  • Getting-to-Know You Activities. ...
  • Parent Teacher Communication. ...
  • Brain Breaks. ...
  • Cooperative Learning: The Jigsaw. ...
  • The Multiple Intelligence Theory.
4 Mar 2019

Why do we use teaching strategies? ›

Teaching strategies refer to methods used to help students learn the desired course contents and be able to develop achievable goals in the future. Teaching strategies identify the different available learning methods to enable them to develop the right strategy to deal with the target group identified.

How can teaching strategies be improved? ›

Five Ways to Improve Your Teaching
  1. Dialogue with Yourself through a Teaching Log. One very important, but often overlooked, source of input on teaching is you, the teacher. ...
  2. Solicit Feedback from Your Students. ...
  3. Dialogue with Faculty. ...
  4. Dialogue with Peers. ...
  5. Seek Outside Consultation.


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